MONETARY HISTORY CALENDAR: June 24 – 30

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JUNE 24

1982 – LEWIS V UNITED STATES (AMENDED DECISION OF THE US COURT OF APPEALS, NINTH CIRCUIT)
“Federal Reserve banks are not federal instrumentalities for purposes of a Federal Tort Claims Act, but are independent, privately owned and locally controlled corporations in light of fact that direct supervision and control of each bank is exercised by board of directors. Federal Reserve banks…are locally controlled by their member banks; banks are listed neither as “wholly owned” government corporations nor as “mixed ownership” corporations; federal reserve banks receive no appropriated funds from Congress and the banks are empowered to sue and be sued in their own names . . ..”

1946 – BIRTH OF ROBERT REICH, FORMER US LABOR SECRETARY
“The dirty little secret is that both houses of Congress are irrelevant. … America’s domestic policy is now being run by Alan Greenspan and the Federal Reserve…America’s foreign policy, meanwhile, is now being run by the International Monetary Fund [IMF] with some coaching from the Treasury Department.”

JUNE 25

2007 – STATEMENT BY SHEILA BAIR, FORMER HEAD OF THE FEDERAL DEPOSIT INSURANCE CORPORATION
“There are strong reasons for believing that banks left to their own devices would maintain less capital — not more — than would be prudent. The fact is, banks do benefit from implicit and explicit government safety nets…In short, regulators can’t leave capital decisions totally to the banks.” Bair cautioned against lowering capital requirements (the amount of money banks have to hold compared to their loans)

JUNE 26

1009 BC – BIRTH OF KING SOLOMON, SON OF DAVID
The rich rules over The poor, and The borrower is The slave of The lender. Proverbs (of Solomon) 7:22

JUNE 27

1992 – UPDATED PUBLICATION SOMETIME THIS MONTH OF MODERN MONEY MECHANICS BY THE FEDERAL RESERVE BANK OF CHICAGO
“The actual process of money creation takes place in commercial banks. Banks can build up deposits by increasing loans and investments…This unique attribute of the banking business was discovered several centuries ago…At one time, bankers were merely middlemen. They made a profit by accepting gold and coins for safekeeping and lending them to borrowers. But they soon found that the receipts (bank notes or IOUs) they issued were being used as if they were a means of payment. “These receipts were acceptable as if they were money since whoever held them could go to the banker and exchange them for metallic money…Then bankers discovered…that they could make loans merely by giving borrowers their promises to pay (bank notes). In this way banks began to create money…More notes (IOUs) could be issued than the gold and coin on hand, because only a portion of the notes outstanding would be presented for payment at any one time…Demand deposits (checks) are the modern counterpart of bank notes. It was a small step from printing notes to making book entries to the credit of borrowers, which the borrowers in turn, could ‘spend’ by writing checks.”

JUNE 28

1836 – DEATH OF JAMES MADISON, 4TH PRESIDENT OF THE UNITED STATES
Madison signed into law a bank bill in 1816 creating the Second National Bank of the United States. Chartered for 20 years, the bank amassed economic power, which led to the successful efforts of President Andrew Jackson to abolish it in 1836.

JUNE 29

1858 – DEATH OF EDWARD KELLOGG, BUSINESSMAN AND ECONOMIST. HIS IDEAS INFLUENCED THE POLICIES OF THE POPULIST AND GREENBACK PARTIES
“Legal value belongs to anything which represents actual value, or capital. Its existence depends upon actual value. The worth of things of legal value depends upon their capability to be exchanged for things of actual value. Since money is our monetary system is created as debt, the ‘legal value’ of money includes both the principal debt and interest — which exceeds the ‘actual value’ of a nation’s real wealth or claims on collateral at any point in time. The only means to close this gap and cover interest payments is to create additional collateral (goods and services) via economic growth. Of course, this additional debt-based money used to pay the previous interest has its own interest. Thus the downward debt cycle never ends until it collapses.

2018 – ANNUAL FEAST OF SAINT PETER AND PAUL
“And having food and raiment let us be therewith content. But they that will be rich fall into temptation and a snare, and into many foolish and hurtful lusts, which drown men in destruction and perdition. For the love of money is the root of all evil: which while some coveted after, they have erred from the faith, and pierced themselves through with many sorrows.” — The Apostle Paul in 1 Timothy 6: 8-10

JUNE 30

1812 – FIRST US TREASURY NOTES AUTHORIZED BY THE UNITED STATES CONGRESS
Treasury notes are promise to pay notes to borrowers to raise revenue. The US needed funds to fund the War of 1812. Rather than print US money (such as “Continentals” – an interest- and debt-free money issued by the Continental Congress to pay for the Revolutionary War), the US government followed a different course – to issue notes to borrowers with promises to pay the principal with interest at a later date. The original interest rate was 5.4%. Wars cause indebtedness. Bankers tend to like wars since they tend to create financial dependency of nations to bankers. Thomas Edison would later say about Treasury bonds, “If our nation can issue a dollar bond, it can issue a dollar bill. The element that makes the bond good makes the bill good…”

1997 – PUBLICATION OF ARTICLE “BEYOND GREED AND SCARCITY” BY BERNARD LIETAER IN YES MAGAZINE
“While economic textbooks claim that people and corporations are competing for markets and resources, I claim that in reality they are competing for money – using markets and resources to do so. Greed and fear of scarcity are being continuously created and amplified as a direct result of the kind of money we are using. For example, we can produce more than enough food to feed everybody, and there is definitely enough work for everybody in the world, but there is clearly not enough money to pay for it all. In fact, the job of central banks is to create and maintain that currency scarcity.”

2005 – PUBLICATION OF “A MATTER OF INTEREST” BY WILLIAM HIXSON, CANADIAN ECONOMIST
“The very idea of a government that can create money for itself, allowing banks to create money that the government then borrows, and pays interest on, is so preposterous that it staggers the imagination. Either everyone in government in charge of the procedure is lacking in intelligence or they have been bought and paid for by those who profit from their skullduggery and their infidelity to the public interest.”

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REAL Democracy History Calendar: June 18 – 24

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https://realdemocracyhistorycalendar.wordpress.com/2018/06/18/real-democracy-history-calendar-june-18-24/

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Monetary History Calendar: June 17-23

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JUNE 17

2009 – PRESIDENT OBAMA RELEASES PLAN FOR FINANCIAL REFORM
“President Obama’s plan to reshape financial regulation seeks to give Washington the tools to police the shadow system of finance that has grown up outside the government’s purview, and to make it easier for regulators to head off problems at large, troubled institutions. However, the president’s plan results from many compromises with industry executives and lawmakers, and is not as bold as some had hoped.” Among the less than ” compromises with industry” were permitting financial institutions to promote various types of derivatives, cutting the number of bank regulators, and granting new powers to the private Federal Reserve.

JUNE 18

1926 – BIRTH OF CHARLES WALTERS, FOUNDER OF ACRES MAGAZINE, A VOICE FOR ECO-AGRICULTURE
“[O]ur forefathers took steps to protect the economic freedom of the United States by giving to Congress, elected by the people, the power to provide a monetary system independent of the monetary systems of other countries, and to regulate the value of the dollar, adopted as our monetary unit, or measure of value. This power automatically gave Congress the right to determine the value of the United States production in terms of United States money.”

2008 – CHRIS DODD PROPOSED HOUSING BAILOUT
As the chairman of the Senate Banking Committee Connecticut’s Christopher Dodd proposes a housing bailout to the Senate floor that would assist troubled subprime mortgage lenders such as Countrywide Bank, Dodd admitted that he received special treatment, perks, and campaign donations from Countrywide, who regarded Dodd as a “special” customer and a “Friend of Angelo.” Dodd received a $75,000 reduction in mortgage payments from Countrywide. The Chairman of the Senate Finance Committee Kent Conrad and the head of Fannie Mae Jim Johnson also received mortgages on favorable terms due to their association with Countrywide CEO Angelo R. Mozilo.

JUNE 19

1902 – DEATH OF LORD ACTON, ENGLISH HISTORIAN, POLITICIAN, AND WRITER
“The issue which has swept down the centuries and which will have to be fought sooner or later is the people versus the banks.”

1946 – DEATH OF HENRY SIMONS, PROFESSOR OF ECONOMICS, UNIVERSITY OF CHICAGO
“The mistake lies in fearing money and trusting debt.”

JUNE 20

1756 – BIRTH OF WILLIAM RICHARDSON DAVIE, NORTH CAROLINA DELEGATE TO THE 1787-8 CONSTITUTIONAL CONVENTION AND GOVERNOR OF N. CAROLINA
“So low and hopeless are the finances of the United States, that, the year before last Congress was obliged to borrow money even, to pay the interest of the principal which we had borrowed before. This wretched resource of turning interest into principal, is the most humiliating and disgraceful measure that a nation could take, and approximates with rapidity to absolute ruin:
Yet it is the inevitable and certain consequence of such a system as the existing Confederation.”

JUNE 21

1940 — DEATH OF SMEDLEY BUTLER, MARINE CORP MAJOR GENERAL (MOST DECORATED MARINE IN US HISTORY AT THE TIME OF HIS DEATH)
“I spent thirty-three years and four months in active military service as a member of this country’s most agile military force, the Marine Corps. I served in all commissioned ranks from Second Lieutenant to Major-General. And during that period, I spent most of my time being a high-class muscle man for Big Business, for Wall Street and for the Bankers. In short, I was a racketeer, a gangster for capitalism…I wouldn’t go to war again, as I have done, to protect some lousy investment of the bankers. There are only two things that we should fight for. One is the defense of out homes and the other is the Bill of Rights. War for any other reason is simply a racket…. I helped make Haiti and Cuba a decent place for the National City Bank boys to collect revenues in. I helped in the raping of half a dozen Central American republics for the benefits of Wall Street. The record of racketeering is long. I helped purify Nicaragua for the international banking house of Brown Brothers in 1909-1912…”

2012 – DEATH OF ANNA SCHWARTZ, CO-AUTHOR OF “A MONETARY HISTORY OF THE UNITED STATES”
“A Monetary History of the United States” contributed to a new consensus on monetary issues, including the sources of the Great Depression. The 888-page book asserts that the 1929 stock market crash and subsequent Great Depression was caused by mistakes by the Federal Reserve. . Former Federal Reserve Chairman Ben Bernanke called the work, ‘the leading and most persuasive explanation of the worst economic disaster in American history.’ ‘You’re right; we [the Fed] did it. We’re very sorry. But thanks to you, we won’t do it again.’
A month after the collapse of Lehman Brothers, Schwartz said in the Wall Street Journal interview the insolvent financial firms should not be bailed out, but rather shut down.

JUNE 22

1911 – SPEECH OF PRESIDENT WILLIAM HOWARD TAFT BEFORE NEW YORK STATE BANKERS’ ASSOCIATION
“There is no legislation, I care not what it is, tariff, railroad, corporation, or of a general political character, that at all equals in importance the putting of our banking and currency system on a sound basis.”
Of course, Taft’s definition of a “sound” banking and currency system was the plan being pushed by major bankers – the creation of a private central bank (which basically defines the Federal Reserve) and the ability of banking corporations to create our nation’s money – as debt.

1949 – BIRTH OF ELIZABETH WARREN, US SENATOR, MASSACHUSETTS
“What we need is a system that puts an end to the boom and bust cycle. A system that recognizes we don’t grow this country from the financial sector; we grow this country from the middle class.” “Powerful interests will fight to hang on to every benefit and subside they now enjoy. Even after exploiting consumers, larding their books with excessive risk, and making bad bets that brought down the economy and forced taxpayer bailouts, the big Wall Street banks are not chastened. They have fought to delay and hamstring the implementation of financial reform, and they will continue to fight every inch of the way.”

JUNE 23

1948 – WEST INTRODUCES NEW CURRENCY IN W. BERLIN, SOVIETS RESPOND WITH BLOCKADE
Several factors led to the blockade of W. Berlin by the Soviet Union. These included the unification of the French, British and US sectors into a West German government and the issuance of a currency in the new country. It was the issuance of a new currency in W. Berlin on June 23. The next day the Soviets imposed a complete blockade on Berlin.

2016 – BREXIT VOTE
Citizens in the United Kingdom vote in a national referendum to withdraw from the European Union. British voters felt their sovereignty, including economic sovereignty, was in peril by remaining in the EU. Other European nations, including those who have entirely lost their ability to issue and circulate their own national currency, are exploring a similar exit. [Note: The British maintained their authority to issue and circulate their currency, the Pound, despite being EU members, unlike other members.]

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Why this calendar? Many people have questions about the root causes of our economic problems. Some questions involve money, banks and debt. How is money created? Why do banks control its quantity? How has the money system been used to liberate (not often) and oppress (most often) us? And how can the money system be “democratized” to rebuild our economy and society, create jobs and reduce debt? Our goal is to inform, intrigue and inspire through bite size weekly postings listing important events and quotes from prominent individuals (both past and present) on money, banking and how the money system can help people and the planet. We hope the sharing of bits of buried history will illuminate monetary and banking issues and empower you with others to create real economic and political justice. This calendar is the original project of the Northeast Ohio American Friends Service Committee. Adele Looney, Phyllis Titus, Donna Schall, Leah Davis, Alice Francini, Deb Jose and Greg Coleridge helped in its development. It is currently updated by Greg Coleridge. Please forward this to others and encourage them to subscribe. To subscribe/unsubscribe or to comment on any entry, email monetarycalendar@yahoo.com
To see the calendar year-to-date, go to https://monetarycalendar.wordpress.com/
A second historical calendar, the REAL Democracy History Calendar, in many ways complements this calendar. For information, go to https://realdemocracyhistorycalendar.wordpress.com/about/

 

To make it to the 4th second

Powerful. To make it to the 4th second and beyond requires changing ourselves (values, attitudes, behaviors) AND societal institutions (including mega corporations which are designed to maximize profits regardless of the impact to people and the planet). It’s more than planting or saving trees. It’s planting the seeds to be more compassionate toward all other living creatures and to create an authentic democracy movement that will create institutions to truly serve and sustain. p.s. Wish the title would have been “human” instead of “man.”

 

 

 

Corporate mergers precede recessions

mergers

Corporate mergers tend to run in cycles — which we’re in one right now. The AT&T-Time Warner deal and proposed Comcast-FOX consolidation are merely the latest in a year (less than half over) that has seen over $2 trillion shelled out for mergers. Besides the problems of economic concentration caused by mergers and the mirrored increase in political power and influence, merged corporations help create and precede recessions. Merger manias tends to peak before recessions. Peaks in the past have coincided with increases in rate hikes by the corporate-controlled Federal Reserve — which happened this week. That’s because corporations heavily borrowed when money was cheap to borrow due to low Federal Reserve-set rates. Now that rates are rising, debt will be more expense by corporations, government and people to pay off. Sad to say but expect to see a serious economic recession in our near future…

REAL Democracy History Calendar: June 11 – 17

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https://realdemocracyhistorycalendar.wordpress.com/2018/06/11/real-democracy-history-calendar-june-11-17/

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Monetary History Calendar: June 10-16

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JUNE 10

1751 – PASSAGE OF BRITISH CURRENCY ACT
The Act restricted New England colonies from creating paper money The colonies had issued paper fiat money known as “bills of credit” to help pay for the French and Indian Wars. The Act limited future issuance of bills of credit to certain circumstances (i.e. to pay public debts, such as taxes, but not private debts, such as to merchants)

1816 – DELEGATES CONVENE CONSTITUTIONAL CONVENTION IN INDIANA
The Indiana Convention in 1816 and the Illinois Constitution in 1818 banned private banking corporations altogether. Voters in Wisconsin, plus four other states, rewrote existing constitutions requiring popular votes on every bank charter recommended by their legislatures as a result of corrupt banking practices associated with issuing bank notes. Only private banks that didn’t issue money (bank notes) operated in these states.

1932 – SPEECH BY LOUIS MCFADDEN (R- PA), CHAIRMAN OF THE US HOUSE BANKING AND CURRENCY COMMITTEE ON THE FLOOR OF CONGRESS
“The Federal Reserve (Banks) are one of the most corrupt institutions the world has ever seen…What is needed here is a return to the Constitution of the United States. We need to have a complete divorce of Bank and State. The old struggle that was fought out here in Jackson’s day must be fought over again… The Federal Reserve Act should be repealed and the Federal Reserve Banks, having violated their charters, should be liquidated immediately. Faithless Government officers who have violated their oaths of office should be impeached and brought to trial. Unless this is done by us, I predict that the American people, outraged, robbed, pillaged, insulted, and betrayed as they are in their own land, will rise in their wrath and send a President here who will sweep the money changers out of the temple.”

2008 – QUOTE BY FEDERAL RESERVE CHAIR BEN BERNANKE
“The risk that the economy has entered a substantial downturn appears to have diminished over the past month or so.” Four months later, the financial industry collapses and Congress passes a $700 billion bailout bill. The nation is mired in a “Great Recession;” for many an outright Depression. The economy today remains stagnant.

JUNE 11

2009 – POSTING ON “TAKE DOWN THE INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND” BLOG ENTITLED, “REFORM IS NECESSARY”
“The International Monetary Fund is a ploy for Western democracies to spread their influence and control over developing nations. Claiming to be philanthropic and economically supportive by providing loans, the IMF simply doles out Western currency in the form of loans with high interest rates to developing nations who could never possibly pay them back. This creates an unfair economic dependency of developing nations on Western countries.”

JUNE 12

2013 – “HISTORY TEACHES THAT WE HAVE THE POWER TO TRANSFORM THE NATION, HERE’S HOW,” ARTICLE PUBLISHED
“To achieve transformational change, we must proceed on two tracks: protesting what we oppose, and building alternative systems to create the world we want to see…
“Currently, people are building economic democracy – including worker-owned cooperatives, participatory budgeting, community supported agriculture, farmer’s markets, community banks and credit unions as well as local currencies and local investment networks, community land trusts, and more – so that people can strengthen their communities. In time, of course, national policies will need to be changed as well, in order to, for example: establish an open and transparent Federal Reserve that is democratically accountable, public rather than private creation of money, the end of corporate personhood, public funding of public campaigns, a new energy economy where every home, business and community uses energy efficiently and produces energy, the end of the destructive extraction economy, and so much more.”
https://www.popularresistance.org/history-teaches-that-we-have-the-power-to-transform-the-nation-heres-how/

JUNE 13

1933 – CONGRESSIONAL PASSAGE OF GLASS-STEAGALL ACT
Actual title was Banking Act of 1933. President Roosevelt signed it on June 16. Considered one of the most important post Depression laws, the legislation created the Federal Deposit Insurance Corporation, which protected bank deposits. It also instituted several bank reforms to curb speculation that caused the Depression. One important provision was to create a firewall between Main Street depository banks and Wall Street investment banks. The Act was repealed by the Gramm-Leach-Bliley Act in 1999.

2014 – “TO THE FUTURE PRIME MINISTER OF THE UK” BLOG POST CALLS FOR DEMOCRATIC MONEY CREATION
“To the future Prime Minister of the UK:
The same banks that caused the financial crisis currently have the power to create 97% of the UK’s money. They’ve used this power recklessly, putting most of the money they create into property bubbles and financial markets. And now they’re back to their old ways.
We need a change. The power to create money should only be used in the public interest, in a democratic, transparent and accountable way. The 1844 law that makes it illegal for anyone other than the Bank of England to create paper money should be updated to apply to the electronic money currently created by banks.
When new money is created, it should be used to fund vital public services or provide finance to businesses, creating jobs where they’re needed, instead of being used to push up house prices or speculate on the financial markets.”
http://www.positivemoney.org/?mailing=1 / https://thomasattwood.wordpress.com/page/5/

JUNE 14

2013 — FACEBOOK MESSAGE TO BILL MOYERS ON MONETARY REFORM
“Dear Mr. Moyers;
An extremely interesting conversation with Richard Wolf today on WAMC @ 2:30. He spoke of the critical problem with capitalism, but failed to say what the problem actually was and I found it interesting that even he decided not to speak of this critical problem.
I urge you to go to Stephen Zarlenga @ http://www.ami.org and read his book The Lost Science of Money. The critical problem with Capitalism is the private ownership of Money by the Federal Reserve since the beginning of our country and the fractional reserve system basing money as debt. I could go on and on but thought you would be better informed by reading this book. If you get a chance, tell me what you think.
Thank You
Henry A. Kirchdorfer III” https://www.facebook.com/moyersandcompany/posts/610306285654053

JUNE 15

1836 – CHARTER (LICENSE) FOR SECOND NATIONAL BANK OF THE UNITED STATES REPEALED
This was the third quasi national bank of the former British colonies — following the Bank of North America (1781-1785, chartered by the Continental Congress) and Bank of the United States (1791-1811, chartered by the US Congress). While called a “national” bank, it was not public but actually a commercial/corporate bank with the power to issue money directly. Early on, it issued a huge amount of money (more than 20 times its reserves) as loans that led to financial speculation and large corporate profits. A year later, it stopped issuing loans, resulting in a severe contraction of the money supply. This led to massive bankruptcies and the Panic of 1819. When President Andrew Jackson threatened to repeal its charter, the Bank’s leaders used its power to restrict money circulation to cause another depression. Bank President Nicolas Biddle wrote, “Nothing but widespread suffering will produce any effect on Congress…Our only safety is in pursuing a steady course of firm restriction – and I have no doubt that such a course will ultimately lead to restoration of the currency and the recharter of the Bank.”

President Andrew Jackson said this about the bank; “The immense capital and peculiar privileges bestowed upon it enabled it to exercise despotic sway over the other banks in every part of the country. From its superior strength it could seriously injure, if not destroy, the business of any one of them, which might incur its resentment; and it openly claimed for itself the power of regulating the currency throughout the United States. In other words, it asserted (and it undoubtedly possessed) the power to make money plenty or scarce at its pleasure, at any time and in any quarter of the Union, by controlling the issues of other banks and permitting an expansion or compelling a general contraction of the circulating medium, according to its own will.”

JUNE 16

1929 – DEATH OF VERNON PARRINGTON, HISTORIAN
“The only safe and rational currency is a national currency based on the national credit sponsored by the state, flexible and controlled in the interests of the people as a whole.”