1933 – CONGRESS PASSES EMERGENCY BANKING ACT
Among its provisions, the Act gave the President the ability to declare a national emergency and have absolute control over the national finances and foreign exchange of the United States. It also allowed for closing insolvent banks. The Act empowered the President during time of war or other emergency to regulate or prohibit the exporting, hoarding, melting or earmarking of gold and silver coin and bullion. All US residents were compelled to pay or deliver all gold (be it coins, bullion or certificates) to the Secretary of the Treasury. They were paid the market value for their gold in dollars. Shortly afterwards, the government significantly raised the price of gold, which in effect, reduced the value of the dollar.
2005 – MSNBC REPORT ON US INFRASTRUCTURE
MSNBC reported that the American Society of Civil Engineers gave the nation’s infrastructure an overall grade of D, including its roads, bridges, drinking water systems and other public works. “We need to establish a comprehensive, long-term infrastructure plan. We need to, but we can’t, because government at every level is broke.” MSNBC report. The plan to create federal money as outlined by the American Monetary Institute would repair our nation’s infrastructure with debt-free US money.
1933 – LAST DAY OF “BANK HOLIDAY” DECLARED BY PRESIDENT ROOSEVELT
The “holiday” meant that all banks would be closed from March 6-10 to prevent further runs by depositors. Bank failures were a result of earlier speculative investments and banks loaning out more money than they actually possessed (called “fractional reserve banking”). When too many people came to a bank at the same time wanting their deposits, the banks collapsed since they lacked sufficient assets. The bank “holiday” was meant to restore confidence in the banking system. At the conclusion of the “holiday,” 5% of all banks were unfit to continue business, many others only were permitted to accept deposits, while others permitted only a certain percentage of deposits to be withdrawn. Slightly more than 50% of all banks reopened with no withdraw restrictions.
1893 – PUBLICATION OF “PANIC CIRCULAR” BY THE AMERICAN BANKERS ASSOCIATION
[Note: Many individuals, including several US public officials, claimed they received the document. The American Bankers Association denied its authenticity].
The document calls on member banks to incite a financial panic to prevent greater public controls of banks, to counter increased public sentiment toward government-issued money and as a means to oppose silver (as opposed to gold) being used as a backing for currency.
The alleged document stated,
“You will at once retire one-third of your circulation (your paper money) and call in one-half of your loans. Be careful to make a monetary [emergency] among your patrons, especially among influential businessmen…
“The future life of national banks as fixed and safe investments depends upon immediate action, as there is an increasing sentiment in favor of Government legal-tender notes and silver coinage
1685 – BIRTH OF GEORGE BERKELEY, ANGLICAN BISHOP OF CLOYNE IRELAND, PHILOSOPHER
Berkeley wrote The Querest in 1735. It was written as questions, which suggested their own answers. On whether money has inherent value, he asked/wrote: “Whether money is to be considered as having an intrinsic value, or as being a commodity, a standard, a measure, or a pledge as is variously suggested by writers? On the evolution of exchange and money, “Whether in the rude original society the first step was not the exchanging of commodities, the next a substitution of metals by weight as the common medium of circulation, after this the making use of coin, lastly a further refinement by the use of paper with proper marks and signatures? And whether as it is the last so it be not the greatest improvement? And whether money be not in truth tickets or tokens for conveying and recording such power, and whether it be of great consequence what materials the tickets are made of.”
1943 – DEATH OF J.P MORGAN, JR, BANKER
JP (Jack) Morgan was the son and grandson of bankers who headed J.P. Morgan & Co., one of the most powerful banks in the nation. He struck a deal with the British and French governments to be the sole munitions and supplies purchaser during World War I, which earned the bank $30 million. The bank was so heavily tied to the British and French governments that it was charged Morgan politically pressured the US government to enter the war against Germany in order to rescue its loans.
1782 – BIRTH OF THOMAS BENTON, US SENATOR, MISSOURI
“I object to the renewal of the charter of the Bank of the United States because I look upon the bank as an institution too great and powerful to be tolerated in a government of free and equal laws. Its power is that of the purse, a power more potent than that of the sword, and this power it possesses to a degree and extent that will enable this bank to draw to it too much of the political power of this Union, and too much of the individual property of the citizens of these States. The money power of the bank is both direct and indirect.”
1881 – INAUGURAL ADDRESS OF PRESIDENT JAMES GARFIELD
“The chief duty of the National Government in connection with the currency of the country is to coin money and declare its value.”
1900 – US GOLD STANDARD ACT APPROVED
It established gold as the only metal standard for redeeming paper money. Populists had campaigned for several years before, culminating in the 1896 Presidential election, to include silver as a standard for redeeming paper money. Banks controlled most of the gold and thus the basis for issuing paper money. Populists wanted to expand the money supply to meet the needs of an expanding economy and country. Banks wanted to maintain control of the money supply. President William McKinley (from Canton, Ohio), strongly backed by the nation’s major corporations, signed the Act. Whether gold and/or silver, banking money with metal moved the nation further away from the Greenbacks, the debt- and interest-free currency issued as credit, of the Lincoln administration.
1767 – BIRTH OF ANDREW JACKSON, SEVENTH PRESIDENT OF THE UNITED STATES
“I too have been a close observer of the doings of the Bank of the United States. I have had men watching you for a long time, and am convinced that you have used the funds of the bank to speculate in the breadstuffs of the country. When you won, you divided the profits amongst you, and when you lost, you charged it to the Bank. You tell me that if I take the deposits from the Bank and annul its charter. I shall ruin ten thousand families. That may be a true, gentleman, but that is your sin! Should I let you go on, you will ruin fifty thousand families, and that would be my sin! You are a den of vipers and thieves. I have
Determined to rout you out and, by the Eternal, I will rout you out.” 1834
Jackson successfully opposed re-chartering the private “Second Bank of the United States.” He vetoed a bill in 1832 renewing the bank’s charter (license).
1985 – OHIO GOVERNOR DICK CELESTE DECLARES S&L “HOLIDAY”
Cincinnati, Ohio based Home State Savings Bank, a Savings & Loan, was about to collapse in March 1985 over its shady operations. As depositors lined up to withdraw their savings in a classic “run” on the bank’s branches, Celeste declared a bank “holiday” when he ordered all Savings & Loans closed in an attempt to stem the panic. Only those that were able to qualify for membership in the Federal Deposit Insurance Corporation were allowed to reopen. Claims by Ohio S&L depositors drained the state’s deposit insurance funds.
2003 – QUOTE BY CHRISTOPHER MARK, AUTHOR OF THE GRAND DECEPTION: THE THEFT OF AMERICA AND THE WORLD, PART III
“Welcome to the world of the International Banker, who like the famous film, The Wizard of Oz, stands behind the curtain of orchestrated national and international policymakers and so-called elected leaders.”
Why this calendar? Many people have questions about the root causes of our economic problems. Some questions involve money, banks and debt. How is money created? Why do banks control its quantity? How has the money system been used to liberate (not often) and oppress (most often) us? And how can the money system be “democratized” to rebuild our economy and society, create jobs and reduce debt? Our goal is to inform, intrigue and inspire through bite size weekly postings listing important events and quotes from prominent individuals (both past and present) on money, banking and how the money system can help people and the planet. We hope the sharing of bits of buried history will illuminate monetary and banking issues and empower you with others to create real economic and political justice. This calendar is a project of the Northeast Ohio American Friends Service Committee. Adele Looney, Phyllis Titus, Donna Schall, Leah Davis, Alice Francini, Deb Jose and Greg Coleridge helped in its development. Please forward this to others and encourage them to subscribe. To subscribe/unsubscribe or to comment on any entry, email firstname.lastname@example.org