1751 – BIRTH OF JAMES MADISON, FOURTH PRESIDENT OF THE UNITED STATES
“History records that the money changers have used every form of abuse, intrigue, deceit and violent means possible to maintain their control over governments by controlling the money and its issuance.”
1938 – HOUSE RESOLUTION (HR) 7230 INTRODUCED
John William Wright Patman, Democratic Congressman 1938-1978 and Chairman, Committee on Banking & Currency, introduces a bill to nationalize the Federal Reserve System.
“The Federal Reserve is a total moneymaking machine. It can issue money or checks, and it never has a problem of making its checks good, because it can obtain the $5 or $10 bills necessary to cover its check simply by asking the Treasury Department’s Bureau of Engraving to print them.” 1964
2008 – BEAR STEARNS FINANCIAL CORPORATION ACQUIRED BY JP MORGAN FINANCIAL CORPORATION
Bear Stearns financial corporation is acquired for $2 a share by JPMorgan Chase corporation in a fire sale avoiding bankruptcy. The deal is backed by the Federal Reserve, which provided up to $30 billion to cover possible bank losses. Bear Stearns was a global institution that invested heavily in subprime loans. Its failure was one piece of the financial crisis and recession.
1947 – JOHN MCCLOY BECOMES PRESIDENT OF THE WORLD BANK
The World Bank would do more to expand US banking globally than any other treaty, agreement, or entity that came before it. McCloy was the World Bank’s second President. He had previously been Assistant Secretary of War during WWII.
2015 – ST. PATRICK’S DAY
“Nobody can borrow themselves out of debt no more than you can drink yourself sober.”
– Byron Dale, monetary reformer and rancher.
1837 – BIRTH OF PRESIDENT GROVER CLEVELAND
The President reportedly stated, “the banks have got the country by the throat” in response to a raid on US gold reserves in 1893 caused when European banks sold millions of US Treasury securities and demanded payment in gold. To replenish the gold supplies, the government issued Treasury bonds exclusively to JP Morgan and August Belmont (two major bankers) in a sweetheart deal for gold. Two years later when the US gold supply had been raided again, Morgan, Belmont and others sold gold to the government, pocketing a large profit.
1869 – PASSAGE OF US LAW THAT ALL US MONETARY NOTES WOULD BE EVENTUALLY CONVERTED TO SPECIE
Specie means money in the form of coins rather than paper notes. Bankers hated Lincoln’s Greenbacks, which were debt-free and inflation-free US money created to avert financial crisis during the Civil War. Following Lincoln’s death, bankers pressured Congress to eliminate Greenbacks, base money creation on precious metals (preferably gold) and, if additional funds were needed by the government to borrow it from banks at interest. Basing the money supply on gold or silver meant that the money supply could only increase when the supply of gold or silver increased – regardless of the growing population or an expanding economy. A pure metal-based money system has historically resulted in depressions – not enough money to meet the economic needs.
1993 – DEATH OF KENNETH BOULDING, ECONOMIST, PROFESSOR, PEACE ACTIVIST, QUAKER
“Anyone who believes exponential growth can go on forever in a finite world is either a madman or an economist. [Note: the same goes for debt.]
1860 – BIRTH OF WILLIAM JENNINGS BRYAN, SENATOR, SECRETARY OF STATE, PRESIDENTIAL CANDIDATE (DEMOCRAT/POPULIST)
Bryan had originally supported the 1913 Federal Reserve Act as Secretary of State under the Wilson administration. His position was crucial in gaining the support of many Congressional Democrats and Progressives. He later regretted his decision. “In my long career, the only thing I genuinely regret is my part in getting the banking and currency legislation enacted into law.”
2011– LIBYAN REBELS FORM CENTRAL BANK
In what may have been a first in history, the Libyan revolutionary rebels created a central bank while still fighting an established state power. The rebels designated the Central Bank of Benghazi as the new monetary authority. It would indicate how influential central bankers were over the rebels. “I have never before heard of a central bank being created in just a matter of weeks out of a popular uprising,” said Robert Wenzel of the Economic Policy Journal.
2014 – BANK OF ENGLAND ADMITS LOANS COME FIRST AND DEPOSITS FOLLOW
The Bank of England released two articles explaining the money creation process – “Money in the modern economy: An Introduction” and “Money creation in the Modern Economy” – in their flagship Quarterly Bulletin of March 2014.
‘In the modern economy, most money takes the form of bank deposits. But how those bank deposits are created is often misunderstood. The principal way in which they are created is through commercial banks making loans: whenever a bank makes a loan, it creates a deposit in the borrower’s bank account, thereby creating new money….”
1821 – GREEK INDEPENDENCE DAY
Solon was an Athenian statesman and lawmaker (presumably, the city in Cuyahoga County is named after him). He became the first effective advocate for democracy in roughly 594 BC when he decentralized power politically in the judiciary and, most importantly, in the Athenian money system. Many in Greece today are advocating exiting the Eurozone, claiming that returning to the Drachma (their original currency) and democratizing its issuance and circulation by the government as opposed to private Greek banks is the path to economic prosperity and political sovereignty. In the name of “austerity”, international bankers, among other things, are asking Greeks to privatize national assets. Massive popular resistance has followed, including the election of anti-austerity leaders with the Syriza party. This has inspired citizens and anti-austerity movements in Italy, Spain, France and elsewhere. Many in Europe are now calling for the creation of “sovereign money” systems at the nation state level, compared to the current top-down system where monetary matters are determined by the European Central Bank, which is controlled by the largest and wealthiest banks on the continent.
1923 – BIRTH OF ALBERT BARTLETT, PROFESSOR OF PHYSICS AT THE UNIVERSITY OF COLORADO AT BOULDER
“The greatest shortcoming of the human race is our inability to understand the exponential function.” Bartlett was a leader on sustainability and this quote is from his lecture, ” Arithmetic, Population, and Energy” he first delivered on September 19, 1969.
Exponential growth requires exponential resources – which are finite. If we have no energy, we have no economy. The economy must grow but nonrenewal energy can’t grow since the environment is fixed.
1975 – DEATH OF RALPH HAWTREY, BRITISH ECONOMIST, FRIEND OF JOHN MAYNARD KEYNES
“Banks lend by creating credit. They create the means of payment out of nothing.”
1832 – DEATH OF JOHANN WOLFGANG VON GOETHE, GERMAN WRITER
“None are more enslaved than those who falsely believe they are free.”
Why this calendar? Many people have questions about the root causes of our economic problems. Some questions involve money, banks and debt. How is money created? Why do banks control its quantity? How has the money system been used to liberate (not often) and oppress (most often) us? And how can the money system be “democratized” to rebuild our economy and society, create jobs and reduce debt? Our goal is to inform, intrigue and inspire through bite size weekly postings listing important events and quotes from prominent individuals (both past and present) on money, banking and how the money system can help people and the planet. We hope the sharing of bits of buried history will illuminate monetary and banking issues and empower you with others to create real economic and political justice. This calendar is a project of the Northeast Ohio American Friends Service Committee. Adele Looney, Phyllis Titus, Donna Schall, Leah Davis, Alice Francini, Deb Jose and Greg Coleridge helped in its development. Please forward this to others and encourage them to subscribe. To subscribe/unsubscribe or to comment on any entry, email firstname.lastname@example.org