With this edition, we begin sending our Calendar on Sundays instead of Mondays. This allows greater opportunity, we hope, for reflection and pursuing these issues on your own. It also provides spacing for a separate Calendar we began publishing each Monday at the beginning of this year — the REAL Democracy History Calendar, https://realdemocracyhistorycalendar.wordpress.com/about/ Feel free to sign up!
1870 – HEPBURN V GRISWOLD US SUPREME COURT DECISION
The Court declared that certain parts of the passed Congressional Legal Tender acts in the 1860’s were unconstitutional. The Legal Tender acts authorized the government to issue paper money, “Greenbacks”, and recognized it as legal to meet financial obligations. The Court concluded, however, that a party to a contract could not use paper money as payment for a debt if the contract stipulated gold or silver as payment. The Court explained how the US Congress possessed the power to coin money, but that that power was different than the power to make paper money legal.
2010 – PUBLICATION THIS MONTH OF PAPER, “THE BANK LENDING CHANNEL REVISITED” BY PITI DISYATAT, BANK FOR INTERNATIONAL SETTLEMENTS
“This paper contends that the emphasis on policy-induced changes in deposits is misplaced. If anything, the process actually works in reverse, with loans driving deposits. In particular, it is argued that the concept of the money multiplier is flawed and uninformative in terms of analyzing the dynamics of bank lending. Under a fiat money standard and liberalized financial system, there is no exogenous constraint on the supply of credit except through regulatory capital requirements. An adequately capitalized banking system can always fulfill the demand for loans if it wishes to.”
2005 – STATEMENT OF HANS SCHICHT, AUTHOR
“The fact that the Banker is allowed to extend credit several times his own capital base and that the Banking Cartels, the Central Banks, are licensed to issue fresh paper money in exchange for treasury paper, have provided them with free lunch for eternity. Thanks to the stupidity and corruption of the legislators. And thanks to the great pundits and journalists, that never understood the crux of fiat money and thus never managed to explain the blatant, ongoing legalized robbery of the people by means of the financial fiat system!
“For over 150 years this robbery has been going on, recently increasing hyperbolically and building to an ultimate crisis. Year after year the Banker’s slice of the world’s asset baskets has been growing and growing. The Banker has become almighty. Through a network of anonymous financial spider webbing only a handful of global King Bankers own and control it all. Big Brother has come to us in the striped suit of the Banker.”
2009 – PUBLISHED ARTICLE: ECONOMIST DEAN BAKER SLAMS BANK BAILOUT
“Mr. Geithner wants to use taxpayer dollars to keep bankrupt banks in business. In effect, he wants to tax teachers, fire fighters, and Joe the Plumber to protect the wealth of the banks’ shareholders and to pay high salaries to their top executives…
The point of buying the bad assets is to pay too much, so that the banks can get enough money to stay solvent…
It would be nice if the [Washington] Post and the rest of the media would report honestly on the bank bailout and stop trying to conceal plans for a massive redistribution of wealth to the bank shareholders and their top executives.”
1808 – STATE OF OHIO GRANTS CHARTER TO BANK OF MARIETTA
This was the first bank chartered by the State of Ohio – and one of the earliest of any kind in the state. Once the charter or license was granted, the bank’s directors and stockholders (as with all banks) were provided the incredible privilege not available to farmers, artisans, or workers of any kind – the license to print money. Their paper bills were deemed legitimate by the state government by agreeing to accept them in payment of certain fees, etc.
The legal contradictions between bankers and farmers of that time (as well as today?) is summarized by author Jason Goodwin: “There seemed to be one set of laws for bankers, and another set for everyone else. For subsistence farmers working dawn till dusk the sums involved seemed obscene, and the principles of banking defied common sense. Armed with a charter, a banker could print money on demand to manufacture, out of thin air, a substance other people would pay him to possess. Yet he didn’t own it to begin with: it wasn’t anything but a promise, written on paper, to pay gold on demand—and he didn’t have the gold.”
1939 – DEATH OF POPE PIUS XI
“For what will it profit men that a more prudent distribution and use of riches make it possible for them to gain even the whole world, if thereby they suffer the loss of their own souls? What will it profit to teach them sound principles in economics, if they permit themselves to be so swept away by selfishness, by unbridled and sordid greed, that, ‘hearing the Commandments of the Lord, they do all things contrary.”
1847 – BIRTH OF THOMAS EDISON, US INVENTOR
“If our nation can issue a dollar bond, it can issue a dollar bill. The element that makes the bond good makes the bill good… If the Government issues bonds, the brokers will sell them. The bonds will be negotiable; they will be considered as gilt edged paper. Why? Because the government is behind them, but who is behind the Government? The people. Therefore it is the people who constitute the basis of Government credit. Why then cannot the people have the benefit of their own gilt-edged credit by receiving non-interest bearing currency… instead of the bankers receiving the benefit of the people’s credit in interest-bearing bonds?”
2004 – RON PAUL, US CONGRESSMAN, SPEAKING TO THE HOUSE FINANCIAL SERVICES COMMITTEE
He referred to the Federal Reserve by stating, “maybe there’s too much power in the hands of those who control monetary policy? The power to create the financial bubbles. The power to maybe bring the bubble about. The power to change the value of the stock market within minutes. That to me is just an ominous power and challenges the whole concept of freedom and liberty and sound money.”
1791 – BIRTH OF PETER COOPER, US INDUSTRIALIST, PHILANTHROPIST (FOUNDED COOPER UNION) AND GREENBACK CANDIDATE FOR PRESIDENT
“The substitution of greenbacks for National bank notes would have the bounty now paid to banks, which, being invested as a sinking fund, would in less than thirty years pay off the whole debt of the country.”
1809 – BIRTH OF ABRAHAM LINCOLN, PRESIDENT OF THE UNITED STATES
“The money power preys upon the nation in times of peace and conspires against it in times of adversity. It is more despotic than monarchy, more insolent than autocracy, more selfish than bureaucracy.” Under Lincoln’s administration, the US Government issued 450 million “Greenbacks” – interest and inflation free money. They weren’t government bill, bonds or any other debt-bearing note. They were actual US money.
“The privilege of creating and issuing money is not only the supreme prerogative of government, but it is the government’s greatest creative opportunity. The financing of all public enterprise, and the conduct of the treasury will become matters of practical administration. Money will cease to be master and will then become servant of humanity.”
1873 – COINAGE ACT PASSED BY CONGRESS (THE “CRIME OF ‘73”)
The Coinage Act removed silver as a form of currency (“demonetized) – leaving gold as the major form of US currency. The public didn’t realize at first what happened. With silver no longer a form of money, the overall amount of currency dramatically declined, causing the prices farmers received for their produce to drop (deflation) but the cost of their debts rise. Thousand of famers lost their land. Those who held silver also suffered. This was one of the sparks of the rise of the farmer-led US Populist movement.
1728 – DEATH OF COTTON MATHER, AUTHOR, MINISTER AND CONVERT TO PAPER MONEY
“Where money has not been introduced, men are brutish and savage and nothing good has been cultivated.”
Why this calendar? Many people have questions about the root causes of our economic problems. Some questions involve money, banks and debt. How is money created? Why do banks control its quantity? How has the money system been used to liberate (not often) and oppress (most often) us? And how can the money system be “democratized” to rebuild our economy and society, create jobs and reduce debt? Our goal is to inform, intrigue and inspire through bite size weekly postings listing important events and quotes from prominent individuals (both past and present) on money, banking and how the money system can help people and the planet. We hope the sharing of bits of buried history will illuminate monetary and banking issues and empower you with others to create real economic and political justice. This calendar is a project of the Northeast Ohio American Friends Service Committee. Adele Looney, Phyllis Titus, Donna Schall, Leah Davis, Alice Francini, Deb Jose and Greg Coleridge helped in its development. Please forward this to others and encourage them to subscribe. To subscribe/unsubscribe or to comment on any entry, email email@example.com