MONETARY HISTORY CALENDAR July 16 – 22

Greenbackk

JULY 16

1979 – FEDERAL RESERVE BANK OF SAN FRANCISCO AD FOR COMPUTER PROGRAMMERS IN “COMPUTERWORLD MAGAZINE”
“Some people still think we’re a branch of the Government. We’re not.”
[Note: You can’t get any clearer or more succinct than this!]

JULY 17

1862 – PASSAGE OF POSTAGE CURRENCY ACT
The act authorized the issuance of 5, 10, 25, and 50-cent notes – which were needed to substitute for gold, silver and copper coins, which were hoarded. This fractional currency US debt-free notes, sold in perforated sheets like stamps, were redeemable by the US Post Offices at face value in postage stamps until 1876.

JULY 18

BIRTH OF STEPHEN ZARLENGA, DIRECTOR, AMERICAN MONETARY INSTITUTE, AUTHOR OF “THE LOST SCIENCE OF MONEY”
“We propose that ultimately the monetary power should be constituted as a fourth branch of government, like the executive, judicial and legislative branches. We have concluded that the nature of man and society requires four, not three, branches of government.” “True monetary reform must take a better path. AMI’s research indicates that money, properly defined, is a legal institution of society and government; not a commodity or economic good of the markets; that if money is a legal institution, then the control of monetary systems can be rightfully viewed as a proper function of government; much as the law courts are.” “When society loses control over its money system, it loses any control it might have had over its destiny.”

JULY 19

1844 – PASSAGE OF BANK CHARTER ACT BY BRITISH PARLIAMENT
The Act curtailed and eventually ended the right of banks to issue banknotes. The right to issue paper money became the sole authority of the Bank of England. NOTE: They could still create money via lending (fractional reserve lending).

2013 – PUBLISHED ARTICLE, THE PUBLIC VS. PRIVATE DIALECTIC, OR: MONEY AS PART OF THE COMMONS” BY ANTHONY MIGCHELS
“Surely it’s a no-brainer to say that the Government at this stage must urgently retake the monopoly on currency from the Money Power. The US Government pays 450 billion per year in interest payments to international banks and other Governments to service its National Debt. With the BIS now openly calling for higher interest rates it will quickly get much worse. Government money allows for a reasonable financing of the State and is the very least monetary reform should aim for.

But to say something is better is not to say something is ideal. And Government money can be designed in good and bad ways. The good ways decentralize power, the bad ways centralize power…”

2015 – ARTICLE “THE FEDERAL RESERVE – WHICH CREATED QUANTITATIVE EASING – ADMITS QE DOESN’T WORK.”
Stephen Williamson, the Vice President of the Federal Reserve Bank of St Louis, writes in a new Fed white paper published on July 9 the following:
“There is no work, to my knowledge, that establishes a link from QE to the ultimate goals of the Fed inflation and real economic activity. Indeed, casual evidence suggests that QE has been ineffective in increasing inflation.
“Thus, the Fed’s forward guidance experiments after the Great Recession would seem to have done more to sow confusion than to clarify the Fed’s policy rule.”

JULY 20

1903 – DEATH OF POPE LEO XIII
“On the one hand there is the party which holds the power because it holds the wealth, which has in its grasp all labor and all trade, which manipulates for its own benefit and its own purposes all the sources of supply, and which is powerfully represented in the councils of State itself. On the other side there is the needy and powerless multitude, sore and suffering. Rapacious usury, which, although more than once condemned by the Church, is nevertheless under a different form but with the same guilt, still practiced by avaricious and grasping men…so that a small number of very rich men have been able to lay upon the masses of the poor a yoke little better than slavery itself.”
– Statement on usury, 1898

JULY 21

1788 – SPEECH AT THE PROCEEDINGS AND DEBATES OF THE CONVENTION OF NORTH CAROLINA (ON WHETHER TO RATIFY THE PROPOSED CONSTITUTION OF THE UNITED STATES)
“So low and hopeless are the finances of the United States, that, the year before last Congress was obliged to borrow money even, to pay the interest of the principal which we had borrowed before. This wretched resource of turning interest into principal, is the most humiliating and disgraceful measure that a nation could take, and approximates with rapidity to absolute ruin.”

1899 – BIRTH OF ERNEST HEMINGWAY, AUTHOR
“How did you go bankrupt?”
“Two ways. Gradually, then suddenly.”
From The Sun Also Rises
[The same may be true of our nation today.]

2011 – REPORT BY US SENATOR BERNIE SANDERS ON AUDIT OF THE US FEDERAL RESERVE
“The first top-to-bottom audit of the Federal Reserve uncovered eye-popping new details about how the U.S. provided a whopping $16 trillion in secret loans to bail out American and foreign banks and businesses during the worst economic crisis since the Great Depression. An amendment by Sen. Bernie Sanders to the Wall Street reform law passed one year ago this week directed the Government Accountability Office to conduct the study. “As a result of this audit, we now know that the Federal Reserve provided more than $16 trillion in total financial assistance to some of the largest financial institutions and corporations in the United States and throughout the world,” said Sanders. ‘This is a clear case of socialism for the rich and rugged, you’re-on-your-own individualism for everyone else.’ “
http://www.sanders.senate.gov/newsroom/press-releases/the-fed-audit

JULY 22

1950 – DEATH OF WILLIAM LYON MACKENZIE KING, 10TH PRIME MINISTER OF CANADA, 1935-48.
“Once a nation parts with the control of its currency and credit, it matters not who makes the nations’ laws. Usury, once in control, will wreck any nation. Until the control of the issue of currency and credit is restored to government and recognized as its most sacred responsibility, all talk of the sovereignty of parliament and of democracy is idle and futile…. The Liberal Party believes that credit is a public matter, not of interest to bankers only, but of direct concern to every citizen. The Liberal Party declares itself in favor of the immediate establishment of a duly constituted national bank for the control of the issue of money in terms of public needs. The flow of money must be in relation with the domestic, social, and industrial needs of the Canadian people…If my party is returned to power, we shall make good our monetary policy in the greatest battle between the money power and the people Canada has ever seen.” Mackenzie King won re-election. The private Bank of Canada, which had been a private corporation, was converted to a “Crown Corporation,” belonging to the people of Canada.

2012 – PUBLISHED ARTICLE IN BLOOMBERG VIEW BY NEIL BAROVSKY, FORMER TROUBLED ASSETS RELIEF PROGRAM (TARP) INSPECTOR GENERAL
“Americans should lose faith in their government. They should deplore the captured politicians and regulators who distributed tax dollars to the banks without insisting that they be accountable. The American people should be revolted by a financial system that rewards failure and protects those who drove it to the point of collapse and will undoubtedly do so again.”
[The same captured politicians by the banking corporations prevents any serious monetary reform – and will no doubt continue until banking corporations and, in fact, all corporations no longer possess the inalienable first amendment constitutional “right to free speech” to lobby and donate/invest in elections]

2015 – TALK BY CONGRESSMAN JEB HENSARLING (R, TEXAS) ON THE FAILURE OF THE POST-FINANCIAL IMPLOSION DODD-FRANK “REFORM”
“The Dodd-Frank architecture, first of all, has made us less financially stable,” he said. “Since the passage of Dodd-Frank, the big banks are bigger and the small banks are fewer. But because Washington can control a handful of big established firms much easier than many small and zealous competitors, this is likely an intended consequence of the Act. Dodd-Frank concentrates greater assets in fewer institutions. It codifies into law ‘Too Big to Fail’ and taxpayer-funded bailouts.”
http://www.mpamag.com/news/on-its-fifth-anniversary-hensarling-slams-doddfrank-23302.aspx

———————–

Why this calendar? Many people have questions about the root causes of our economic problems. Some questions involve money, banks and debt. How is money created? Why do banks control its quantity? How has the money system been used to liberate (not often) and oppress (most often) us? And how can the money system be “democratized” to rebuild our economy and society, create jobs and reduce debt? Our goal is to inform, intrigue and inspire through bite size weekly postings listing important events and quotes from prominent individuals (both past and present) on money, banking and how the money system can help people and the planet. We hope the sharing of bits of buried history will illuminate monetary and banking issues and empower you with others to create real economic and political justice. This calendar is the original project of the Northeast Ohio American Friends Service Committee. Adele Looney, Phyllis Titus, Donna Schall, Leah Davis, Alice Francini, Deb Jose and Greg Coleridge helped in its development. It is currently updated by Greg Coleridge. Please forward this to others and encourage them to subscribe. To subscribe/unsubscribe or to comment on any entry, email monetarycalendar@yahoo.com
To see the calendar year-to-date, go to https://monetarycalendar.wordpress.com/
A second historical calendar, the REAL Democracy History Calendar, in many ways complements this calendar. For information, go to https://realdemocracyhistorycalendar.wordpress.com/about/

 

 

 

MONETARY HISTORY CALENDAR July 9 – 15

 

grnback

JULY 9

1778 – FIRST STATES RATIFY THE ARTICLES OF CONFEDERATION
Eight states signed the Articles on this day. Other states followed shortly thereafter. The Articles granted the Federal Government the authority to issue money and determine its value if nine states agreed.

2007 – CITIGROUP CEO CHARLES PRINCE INTERVIEW WITH THE FINANCIAL TIMES
Explaining his bank’s excessive money creation through the creation of risky sub-prime loans,
“When the music stops, in terms of liquidity, things will get complicated. But as long as the music is playing, you’ve got to get up and dance.”

JULY 10

1509 – BIRTH OF JOHN CALVIN, FRENCH THEOLOGIAN AND PASTOR
“For we altogether condemn usuries, we shall impose severer restrictions upon the consciences that the Lord himself desired.”

1832 – ANDREW JACKSON VETOES LEGISLATION TO RENEW THE CHARTER OF THE PRIVATE SECOND BANK OF THE UNITED STATES
“Is there no danger to our liberty and independence in a bank that in its nature has so little to bind it to our country?… Should its influence become concentrated, as it may under the operation of such an act as this, in the hands of a self-elected directory whose interests are identified with those of the foreign stockholders, will there not be cause to tremble for the purity of our elections in peace and for the independence of our country in war? Their power would be great whenever they might choose to exert it; but if this monopoly were regularly renewed every fifteen or twenty years on terms proposed by themselves, they might seldom in peace put forth their strength to influence elections or control the affairs of the nation. But if any private citizen or public functionary should interpose to curtail its powers or prevent a renewal of its privileges, it can not be doubted that he would be made to feel its influence.”

1983 – PUBLICATION OF “FISCAL POLICY AND RESOURCE ALLOCATION IN ISLAM” Edited by ZIAUDDIN AHMED, MUNAWAR IQBAL AND M. FAHIM KHAN
“Money creation is a social prerogative and hence the benefits of the process of money creation should accrue to the whole society which can best be achieved through 100 per cent reserve system.”

JULY 11

1862 – LEGISLATIVE ACT AUTHORIZING US GOVERNMENT TO ISSUE MONEY
Congress passes legislation to issue and circulate $150 million in non-interest bearing, debt-free notes – Greenbacks. This is authorized in the U.S. Constitution, Article 1, Section 8.

2011 – STATEMENT BY STEVEN KEEN, ECONOMIST, ON QUANTITATIVE EASING
“This is the biggest transfer of wealth in history,” as the giant banks have handed their toxic debts from fraudulent activities to the countries and their people.

JULY 12

1804 – DEATH OF ALEXANDER HAMILTON, FIRST SECRETARY OF THE TREASURY
He was a major proponent of First Bank of the United States – a privately owned national bank. The name was to deceive people into thinking that money creation was done by the government instead of corporate banks. The nation’s money was created out of thin air and loaned to the government – at interest – and to private individuals. Eighty percent of the stock was privately held. Hamilton called the public debt “a public blessing” because of his belief that it would tie the wealthy (who would own the government bonds) of the country to the government, and they would, in turn, provide political support for higher taxes, to make sure that there was enough money in the treasury to pay off their principal and interest.

1895 – BIRTH OF BUCKMINSTER FULLER, AMERICAN ARCHITECT, SYSTEM THEORIST, AUTHOR, DESIGNER, INVENTOR, AND FUTURIST
“You never change things by fighting the existing reality. To change something, build a new model that makes the existing model obsolete.”
That’s what the National Emergency Employment Defense (NEED) Act does.

2012 – GREEN PARTY USA CALLS FOR MONETARY REFORM IN PARTY PLATFORM
Green Party Platform:
“Democratize Monetary Policy and the Federal Reserve System: Place a 100% reserve requirement on demand deposits in order to return control of monetary policy from private bankers to elected government. Selection of Federal Reserve officers by our elected representatives, not private bankers. Strengthen the regional development mission of the regional Federal Reserve Banks by directing them to target investments to promote key policy objectives, such as high-wage employment, worker and community ownership, ecological production, and inner city reconstruction.”

JULY 13

1832 – CONGRESS FAILS TO OVERRIDE PRESIDENT JACKSON’S VETO TO RENEW THE CHARTER OF THE SECOND NATIONAL BANK OF THE UNITED STATES
In his veto message to renew the misnamed “national bank” (it was actually a private bank controlled/owned by stockholders, a majority of whom were foreigners), Jackson stated: “Controlling our currency, receiving our public monies, and holding thousands of our citizens in dependence…would be more formidable and dangerous than a naval and military power of the enemy.”

1956 – QUOTE OF J.R.R TOLKIEN, AUTHOR (THE HOBBIT AND LORD OF THE RINGS) AND UNIVERSITY OF OXFORD PROFESSOR, IN CONDOUR MAGAZINE
“The main mark of modern governments is that we do not know who governs, de facto any more than de jure. We see the politician and not his backer; still less the backer of the backer; or what is most important of all, the banker of the backer. Enthroned above all, in a manner without parallel in all past, is the veiled prophet of finance, swaying all men living by a sort of magic, and delivering oracles in a language not understood of the people.”

2013 – PUBLICATION OF ARTICLE, “EVERYONE KNOWS THAT THE FEDERAL RESERVE BANKS ARE PRIVATE…EXCEPT THE AMERICAN PEOPLE”
Most Americans Still Don’t Know that Federal Reserve Banks Are Private Corporations
http://www.washingtonsblog.com/2013/07/everyone-knows-that-the-federal-reserve-banks-are-private-except-the-american-people.html

JULY 14

1833 – DEATH OF WILLIAM M. GOUGE, ADVISOR TO PRESIDENT ANDREW JACKSON, EDITOR OF THE PHILADELPHIA GAZETTE, PUBLISHER OF THE “HISTORY OF THE AMERICAN BANKING SYSTEM” AND A “FISCAL HISTORY OF TEXAS”
“The large extent of bank influence is not easily seen. We seldom see an identified bank or a money corporation candidate running for office; but when questions arise which affect them, the banks have agents at work, whose operations are the more effective because they are unseen.”

JULY 15

2012 – PUBLICATION OF ARTILE, “ASSET HOLES: US ‘LEADERSHIP IN MONEY, CREDIT, CAFR SURPLUS TRILLIONS” BY CARL HERMAN
“The great news is that economic solutions are obvious:
Monetary reform: the US doesn’t have a money supply, but its Orwellian opposite of a ‘debt supply.’ Banks and the Fed create what we use for money as debts, then charge the 99% interest for its use. Monetary reform has government transparency (yes, unimaginable without total Occupy victory) to create debt-free money for direct payment of public goods and services. This has game-changing triple benefits of full-employment as government becomes the employer of last resort, optimal infrastructure, and falling prices because infrastructure contribute more to productivity than cost.”

———————–

Why this calendar? Many people have questions about the root causes of our economic problems. Some questions involve money, banks and debt. How is money created? Why do banks control its quantity? How has the money system been used to liberate (not often) and oppress (most often) us? And how can the money system be “democratized” to rebuild our economy and society, create jobs and reduce debt? Our goal is to inform, intrigue and inspire through bite size weekly postings listing important events and quotes from prominent individuals (both past and present) on money, banking and how the money system can help people and the planet. We hope the sharing of bits of buried history will illuminate monetary and banking issues and empower you with others to create real economic and political justice. This calendar is the original project of the Northeast Ohio American Friends Service Committee. Adele Looney, Phyllis Titus, Donna Schall, Leah Davis, Alice Francini, Deb Jose and Greg Coleridge helped in its development. It is currently updated by Greg Coleridge. Please forward this to others and encourage them to subscribe. To subscribe/unsubscribe or to comment on any entry, email monetarycalendar@yahoo.com
To see the calendar year-to-date, go to https://monetarycalendar.wordpress.com/
A second historical calendar, the REAL Democracy History Calendar, in many ways complements this calendar. For information, go to https://realdemocracyhistorycalendar.wordpress.com/about/

 

MONETARY HISTORY CALENDAR June 25 – July 1

Greenbackk

JUNE 25

2007 – STATEMENT BY SHEILA BAIR, FORMER HEAD OF THE FEDERAL DEPOSIT INSURANCE CORPORATION
“There are strong reasons for believing that banks left to their own devices would maintain less capital — not more — than would be prudent. The fact is, banks do benefit from implicit and explicit government safety nets…In short, regulators can’t leave capital decisions totally to the banks.” Bair cautioned against lowering capital requirements (the amount of money banks have to hold compared to their loans)

JUNE 26

1009 BC – BIRTH OF KING SOLOMON, SON OF DAVID
The rich rules over The poor, and The borrower is The slave of The lender. Proverbs (of Solomon) 7:22

JUNE 27

1836 – STATEMENT BY JOHN C. CALHOUN, FORMER US VICE-PRESIDENT
“A power has risen up in the government greater than the people themselves, consisting of many and various powerful interests, combined in one mass, and held together by the cohesive power of the vast surplus in banks.”

JUNE 28

1836 – DEATH OF JAMES MADISON, 4TH PRESIDENT OF THE UNITED STATES
Madison signed into law a bank bill in 1816 creating the Second National Bank of the United States. Chartered for 20 years, the bank amassed economic power, which led to the successful efforts of President Andrew Jackson to abolish it in 1836.

JUNE 29

1795 – DEATH OF JOHN JAY, FIRST CHIEF JUSTICE OF THE US SUPREME COURT
“Those who own the country ought to govern it.”

1858 – DEATH OF EDWARD KELLOGG, BUSINESSMAN AND ECONOMIST. HIS IDEAS INFLUENCED THE POLICIES OF THE POPULIST AND GREENBACK PARTIES
“Legal value belongs to anything which represents actual value, or capital. Its existence depends upon actual value. The worth of things of legal value depends upon their capability to be exchanged for things of actual value. Since money is our monetary system is created as debt, the ‘legal value’ of money includes both the principal debt and interest — which exceeds the ‘actual value’ of a nation’s real wealth or claims on collateral at any point in time. The only means to close this gap and cover interest payments is to create additional collateral (goods and services) via economic growth. Of course, this additional debt-based money used to pay the previous interest has its own interest. Thus the downward debt cycle never ends until it collapses.

JUNE 30

1812 – FIRST US TREASURY NOTES AUTHORIZED BY THE UNITED STATES CONGRESS
Treasury notes are promise to pay notes to borrowers to raise revenue. The US needed funds to fund the War of 1812. Rather than print US money (such as “Continentals” – an interest- and debt-free money issued by the Continental Congress to pay for the Revolutionary War), the US government followed a different course – to issue notes to borrowers with promises to pay the principal with interest at a later date. The original interest rate was 5.4%. Wars cause indebtedness. Bankers tend to like wars since they tend to create financial dependency of nations to bankers. Thomas Edison would later say about Treasury bonds, “If our nation can issue a dollar bond, it can issue a dollar bill. The element that makes the bond good makes the bill good…”

1997 – PUBLICATION OF ARTICLE “BEYOND GREED AND SCARCITY” BY BERNARD LIETAER IN YES MAGAZINE
“While economic textbooks claim that people and corporations are competing for markets and resources, I claim that in reality they are competing for money – using markets and resources to do so. Greed and fear of scarcity are being continuously created and amplified as a direct result of the kind of money we are using. For example, we can produce more than enough food to feed everybody, and there is definitely enough work for everybody in the world, but there is clearly not enough money to pay for it all. In fact, the job of central banks is to create and maintain that currency scarcity.”

2005 – PUBLICATION OF “A MATTER OF INTEREST” BY WILLIAM HIXSON, CANADIAN ECONOMIST
“The very idea of a government that can create money for itself, allowing banks to create money that the government then borrows, and pays interest on, is so preposterous that it staggers the imagination. Either everyone in government in charge of the procedure is lacking in intelligence or they have been bought and paid for by those who profit from their skullduggery and their infidelity to the public interest.”

JUNE (not certain of exact date)

1992- UPDATED PUBLICATION OF MODERN MONEY MECHANICS BY THE FEDERAL RESERVE BANK OF CHICAGO
“The actual process of money creation takes place in commercial banks. Banks can build up deposits by increasing loans and investments…This unique attribute of the banking business was discovered several centuries ago…At one time, bankers were merely middlemen. They made a profit by accepting gold and coins for safekeeping and lending them to borrowers. But they soon found that the receipts (bank notes or IOUs) they issued were being used as if they were a means of payment. “These receipts were acceptable as if they were money since whoever held them could go to the banker and exchange them for metallic money…Then bankers discovered…that they could make loans merely by giving borrowers their promises to pay (bank notes). In this way banks began to create money…More notes (IOUs) could be issued than the gold and coin on hand, because only a portion of the notes outstanding would be presented for payment at any one time…Demand deposits (checks) are the modern counterpart of bank notes. It was a small step from printing notes to making book entries to the credit of borrowers, which the borrowers in turn, could ‘spend’ by writing checks.”

JULY 1

1944 – BRETTON WOODS CONFERENCE BEGINS
The United Nations Monetary and Financial Conference, known as the Bretton Woods Conference was a meeting of 44 Allied nations in New Hampshire, where the International Monetary Fund (IMF) and World Bank were created. Participant nations agreed to fix their currencies to a set value of gold. Debtor nations were to be helped with payments. The actual program was the use of loans (to be paid back with interest) to create political and economic dependence to loaning countries and their bankers. Agreements to receive further loans were often conditioned on “Structural Adjustment Programs” which called for privatization/corporatization of public services, wage cuts and perversion of economies to service debt payments.

———————–

Why this calendar? Many people have questions about the root causes of our economic problems. Some questions involve money, banks and debt. How is money created? Why do banks control its quantity? How has the money system been used to liberate (not often) and oppress (most often) us? And how can the money system be “democratized” to rebuild our economy and society, create jobs and reduce debt? Our goal is to inform, intrigue and inspire through bite size weekly postings listing important events and quotes from prominent individuals (both past and present) on money, banking and how the money system can help people and the planet. We hope the sharing of bits of buried history will illuminate monetary and banking issues and empower you with others to create real economic and political justice. This calendar is the original project of the Northeast Ohio American Friends Service Committee. Adele Looney, Phyllis Titus, Donna Schall, Leah Davis, Alice Francini, Deb Jose and Greg Coleridge helped in its development. It is currently updated by Greg Coleridge. Please forward this to others and encourage them to subscribe. To subscribe/unsubscribe or to comment on any entry, email monetarycalendar@yahoo.com
To see the calendar year-to-date, go to https://monetarycalendar.wordpress.com/
A second historical calendar, the REAL Democracy History Calendar, in many ways complements this calendar. For information, go to https://realdemocracyhistorycalendar.wordpress.com/about/

MONETARY HISTORY CALENDAR: June 18-24

Greenbackk

JUNE 18

1926 – BIRTH OF CHARLES WALTERS, FOUNDER OF ACRES MAGAZINE, A VOICE FOR ECO-AGRICULTURE
“[O]ur forefathers took steps to protect the economic freedom of the United States by giving to Congress, elected by the people, the power to provide a monetary system independent of the monetary systems of other countries, and to regulate the value of the dollar, adopted as our monetary unit, or measure of value. This power automatically gave Congress the right to determine the value of the United States production in terms of United States money.”

JUNE 19

1902 – DEATH OF LORD ACTON, ENGLISH HISTORIAN, POLITICIAN, AND WRITER
“The issue which has swept down the centuries and which will have to be fought sooner or later is the people versus the banks.”

1946 – DEATH OF HENRY SIMONS, PROFESSOR OF ECONOMICS, UNIVERSITY OF CHICAGO
“The mistake lies in fearing money and trusting debt.”

JUNE 20

1756 – BIRTH OF WILLIAM RICHARDSON DAVIE, NORTH CAROLINA DELEGATE TO THE 1787-8 CONSTITUTIONAL CONVENTION AND GOVERNOR OF N. CAROLINA
“So low and hopeless are the finances of the United States, that, the year before last Congress was obliged to borrow money even, to pay the interest of the principal which we had borrowed before. This wretched resource of turning interest into principal, is the most humiliating and disgraceful measure that a nation could take, and approximates with rapidity to absolute ruin:
Yet it is the inevitable and certain consequence of such a system as the existing Confederation.”

JUNE 21

1940 — DEATH OF SMEDLEY BUTLER, MARINE CORP MAJOR GENERAL (MOST DECORATED MARINE IN US HISTORY AT THE TIME OF HIS DEATH)
“I spent thirty-three years and four months in active military service as a member of this country’s most agile military force, the Marine Corps. I served in all commissioned ranks from Second Lieutenant to Major-General. And during that period, I spent most of my time being a high-class muscle man for Big Business, for Wall Street and for the Bankers. In short, I was a racketeer, a gangster for capitalism…I wouldn’t go to war again, as I have done, to protect some lousy investment of the bankers. There are only two things that we should fight for. One is the defense of out homes and the other is the Bill of Rights. War for any other reason is simply a racket…. I helped make Haiti and Cuba a decent place for the National City Bank boys to collect revenues in. I helped in the raping of half a dozen Central American republics for the benefits of Wall Street. The record of racketeering is long. I helped purify Nicaragua for the international banking house of Brown Brothers in 1909-1912…”

2012 – DEATH OF ANNA SCHWARTZ, CO-AUTHOR OF “A MONETARY HISTORY OF THE UNITED STATES”
“A Monetary History of the United States” contributed to a new consensus on monetary issues, including the sources of the Great Depression. The 888-page book asserts that the 1929 stock market crash and subsequent Great Depression was caused by mistakes by the Federal Reserve. . Former Federal Reserve Chairman Ben Bernanke called the work, ‘the leading and most persuasive explanation of the worst economic disaster in American history.’ ‘You’re right; we [the Fed] did it. We’re very sorry. But thanks to you, we won’t do it again.’
A month after the collapse of Lehman Brothers, Schwartz said in the Wall Street Journal interview the insolvent financial firms should not be bailed out, but rather shut down.

JUNE 22

1911 – SPEECH OF PRESIDENT WILLIAM HOWARD TAFT BEFORE NEW YORK STATE BANKERS’ ASSOCIATION
“There is no legislation, I care not what it is, tariff, railroad, corporation, or of a general political character, that at all equals in importance the putting of our banking and currency system on a sound basis.”
Of course, Taft’s definition of a “sound” banking and currency system was the plan being pushed by major bankers – the creation of a private central bank (which basically defines the Federal Reserve) and the ability of banking corporations to create our nation’s money – as debt.

1949 – BIRTH OF ELIZABETH WARREN, US SENATOR, MASSACHUSETTS
“What we need is a system that puts an end to the boom and bust cycle. A system that recognizes we don’t grow this country from the financial sector; we grow this country from the middle class.” “Powerful interests will fight to hang on to every benefit and subside they now enjoy. Even after exploiting consumers, larding their books with excessive risk, and making bad bets that brought down the economy and forced taxpayer bailouts, the big Wall Street banks are not chastened. They have fought to delay and hamstring the implementation of financial reform, and they will continue to fight every inch of the way.”

JUNE 23

1948 – WEST INTRODUCES NEW CURRENCY IN W. BERLIN, SOVIETS RESPOND WITH BLOCKADE
Several factors led to the blockade of W. Berlin by the Soviet Union. These included the unification of the French, British and US sectors into a West German government and the issuance of a currency in the new country. It was the issuance of a new currency in W. Berlin on June 23. The next day the Soviets imposed a complete blockade on Berlin.

2016 – BREXIT VOTE
Citizens in the United Kingdom vote in a national referendum to withdraw from the European Union. British voters felt their sovereignty, including economic sovereignty, was in peril by remaining in the EU. Other European nations, including those who have entirely lost their ability to issue and circulate their own national currency, are exploring a similar exit. [Note: The British maintained their authority to issue and circulate their currency, the Pound, despite being EU members, unlike other members.]

JUNE 24

1982 – LEWIS V UNITED STATES (AMENDED DECISION OF THE US COURT OF APPEALS, NINTH CIRCUIT)
“Federal Reserve banks are not federal instrumentalities for purposes of a Federal Tort Claims Act, but are independent, privately owned and locally controlled corporations in light of fact that direct supervision and control of each bank is exercised by board of directors. Federal Reserve banks…are locally controlled by their member banks; banks are listed neither as “wholly owned” government corporations nor as “mixed ownership” corporations; federal reserve banks receive no appropriated funds from Congress and the banks are empowered to sue and be sued in their own names . . ..”

1946 – BIRTH OF ROBERT REICH, FORMER US LABOR SECRETARY
“The dirty little secret is that both houses of Congress are irrelevant.  … America’s domestic policy is now being run by Alan Greenspan and the Federal Reserve…America’s foreign policy, meanwhile, is now being run by the International Monetary Fund [IMF] with some coaching from the Treasury Department.”

———————–

Why this calendar? Many people have questions about the root causes of our economic problems. Some questions involve money, banks and debt. How is money created? Why do banks control its quantity? How has the money system been used to liberate (not often) and oppress (most often) us? And how can the money system be “democratized” to rebuild our economy and society, create jobs and reduce debt? Our goal is to inform, intrigue and inspire through bite size weekly postings listing important events and quotes from prominent individuals (both past and present) on money, banking and how the money system can help people and the planet. We hope the sharing of bits of buried history will illuminate monetary and banking issues and empower you with others to create real economic and political justice. This calendar is the original project of the Northeast Ohio American Friends Service Committee. Adele Looney, Phyllis Titus, Donna Schall, Leah Davis, Alice Francini, Deb Jose and Greg Coleridge helped in its development. It is currently updated by Greg Coleridge. Please forward this to others and encourage them to subscribe. To subscribe/unsubscribe or to comment on any entry, email monetarycalendar@yahoo.com
To see the calendar year-to-date, go to https://monetarycalendar.wordpress.com/
A second historical calendar, the REAL Democracy History Calendar, in many ways complements this calendar. For information, go to https://realdemocracyhistorycalendar.wordpress.com/about/

 

MONETARY HISTORY CALENDAR June 4 – 10

Greenbackk

JUNE 4

1910 – BIRTH OF ROBERT B. ANDERSON, SECRETARY OF THE TREASURY UNDER PRESIDENT DWIGHT D. EISENHOWER
“When a bank makes a loan it simply adds to the borrowers’ deposit account in the bank by the amount of the loan.  The money is not taken from anyone else’s deposit; it was not previously paid in to the bank by anyone.  It’s new money, created by the bank for the use of the borrower.”

JUNE 5

1883 – BIRTH OF JOHN MAYNARD KEYNES, ECONOMIST
“Lenin is said to have declared that the best way to destroy the capitalist system was to debauch the currency. By a continuing process of inflation, governments can confiscate, secretly and unobserved, an important part of the wealth of their citizens. By this method they not only confiscate, but they confiscate arbitrarily; and, while the process impoverishes many, it actually enriches some…As the inflation proceeds and the real value of the currency fluctuates wildly from month to month, all permanent relations between debtors and creditors, which form the ultimate foundation of capitalism, become so utterly disordered as to be almost meaningless; and the process of wealth-getting degenerates into a gamble and a lottery.

“Lenin was certainly right. There is no subtler, no surer means of overturning the existing basis of society than to debauch the currency. The process engages all the hidden forces of economic law on the side of destruction, and does it in a manner which not one man in a million is able to diagnose.”

2013 – STATEMENT BY POPE FRANCIS
“Man is not in charge today, money is in charge, money rules. God our Father did not give the task of caring for the earth to money, but to us, to men and women: we have this task! Instead, men and women are sacrificed to the idols of profit and consumption: it is the ‘culture of waste.'”

JUNE 6

1934 – CHICAGO PLAN INTRODUCED IN THE US CONGRESS
The “Chicago Plan” was a proposal developed by several prominent economists directed at President Roosevelt to end the Great Depression. One hundred and fifty academic economists signed the Plan; another 40 approved it with reservations. Main features: 1. Only the government would create money. 2. The Plan separated the loan-making function, which can belong in private banks, from the money-creation function, which belongs in government. 3. The proposal recognized the distinction between money and credit. Senator Bronson Cutting (R, NM) introduced The Plan in Congress (S. 3744). In several respects, it was the precursor to the National Emergency Employment Act (HR 6550) introduced by Rep. Dennis Kucinich in 2010, and reintroduced as HR 2990 in 2011.

JUNE 7

2013 – PUBLISHED ARTICLE, “THE WAY MONEY IS CREATED IS AT THE ROOT OF THE ENVIRONMENTAL AND ECONOMIC CRISIS” BY BRUCE NIXON
“Do you know how our money is created? Most people don’t…
“97% of our money is created by commercial banks when they make loans, i.e. interest bearing debt…Only 3% is created in the form of notes and coins. Thus the profits of creating money go to the commercial banks rather than the public coffers…
“The current way of creating money gives the big banks enormous power…It means that the commercial banks, not our government, control one of the key levers of our economy. So it is one of the ways we let big banks subvert democracy…
“The way money is created is at the root of the environmental and economic crisis.
“Firstly, it drives unsustainable growth and consumption. Corporations must produce and sell more to pay interest and repay loans. Easy credit encourages more and more unsustainable consumption.
“Secondly, this way of creating money increases the cost of everything and fuels the nation’s escalating debt…
“We are encouraged to worship great god growth (GDP) rather than the creation of wellbeing.
“Meanwhile millions of people suffer unemployment and needless austerity through so-called “Neo-Liberal” policies, which have never worked…
“It does not have to be this way…
“There is a growing realization that fresh ideas are needed if these crises are to be avoided…
“Under proposed monetary reforms, commercial banks would be prohibited from creating money. That would be the sole responsibility of national reserve banks: to provide the money supply required for national objectives, decided by democratically elected government. Meanwhile, commercial banks would continue to fulfill their proper role of providing both the traditional bank services that individuals and businesses require and investment services…
“Ordinary people, so-called, know that something is wrong; it’s up to us to inform ourselves and demand radical reform. Otherwise governments will continue with fixes that won’t work rather than the radical change that is needed.”

JUNE 8

1042 – REIGN OF KING EDWARD OF ENGLAND BEGINS
Taking any interest on loaned money was considered a sin in early England. Under King Edward’s reign, those who charged interest (usurers) were declared outlaws and banished from the country.

1809 – DEATH OF THOMAS PAINE, COLONIAL REVOLUTIONARY
Commenting on the value of colonial-issued money, the “Continental” — 
”Every stone in the Bridge, that has carried us over seems to have a claim upon our esteem. But this was a corner stone, and its usefulness cannot be forgotten.”

1845 – DEATH OF ANDREW JACKSON, PRESIDENT OF THE UNITED STATES
“The bold effort the present (central) bank had made to control the government … are but premonitions of the fate that await the American people, should they be deluded into a perpetuation of this institution or the establishment of another like it.”
“If Congress has the right under the Constitution to issue paper money, it was given to be used by themselves, not to be delegated to individuals or corporations.”

JUNE 9

2014 – PUBLICATION OF REPORT “WHO PAYS FOR BANK REGULATION” BY GOLDMAN SACHS CORPORATION
“In the wake of the financial crisis, a wide range of new and revised rules, regulations and practices have been imposed on the US banking industry. While many of these steps are designed to strengthen the safety and soundness of the banking system, they also act as a tax on banks: by changing relative prices, regulation makes some activities more expensive and others cheaper…While there is some added subtlety to the results of our analysis, we find in general that low-income consumers and small businesses – which generally have fewer or less effective alternatives to bank credit – have paid the largest price for increased bank regulation.”

How thoughtful of Goldman Sachs corporate leadership to be concerned about the plight of low-income consumers and small businesses in banking reform.  One wonders if the corporation, which Rolling Stone’s Matt Taibbi called the “great vampire squid” for its ability to suck money instead of blood, had similar sympathies when it received $12.9 billion in bailout money related to AIG, or an additional $10 billion in federal TARP bailout funds (which shortly afterwards in the later case they decided to pay 953 employees bonuses of at least $1 million)  — all of which served to increase its own economic solvency and political power. Goldman Sachs’ political power is demonstrated by its $5.8 million in political contributions/investments and $3.2 million in lobbying during the 2016 election cycle — funds used to water down or gut existing financial regulations. It’s this political influence, and the influence of other financial corporations, that also makes it nearly impossible to promote real monetary reform in Congress.

JUNE 10

1751 – PASSAGE OF BRITISH CURRENCY ACT
The Act restricted New England colonies from creating paper money The colonies had issued paper fiat money known as “bills of credit” to help pay for the French and Indian Wars. The Act limited future issuance of bills of credit to certain circumstances (i.e. to pay public debts, such as taxes, but not private debts, such as to merchants)

1816 – DELEGATES CONVENE CONSTITUTIONAL CONVENTION IN INDIANA
The Indiana Convention in 1816 and the Illinois Constitution in 1818 banned private banking corporations altogether. Voters in Wisconsin, plus four other states, rewrote existing constitutions requiring popular votes on every bank charter recommended by their legislatures as a result of corrupt banking practices associated with issuing bank notes. Only private banks that didn’t issue money (bank notes) operated in these states.

1932 – SPEECH BY LOUIS MCFADDEN (R- PA), CHAIRMAN OF THE US HOUSE BANKING AND CURRENCY COMMITTEE ON THE FLOOR OF CONGRESS
“The Federal Reserve (Banks) are one of the most corrupt institutions the world has ever seen…What is needed here is a return to the Constitution of the United States. We need to have a complete divorce of Bank and State. The old struggle that was fought out here in Jackson’s day must be fought over again… The Federal Reserve Act should be repealed and the Federal Reserve Banks, having violated their charters, should be liquidated immediately. Faithless Government officers who have violated their oaths of office should be impeached and brought to trial. Unless this is done by us, I predict that the American people, outraged, robbed, pillaged, insulted, and betrayed as they are in their own land, will rise in their wrath and send a President here who will sweep the money changers out of the temple.”

———————–

Why this calendar? Many people have questions about the root causes of our economic problems. Some questions involve money, banks and debt. How is money created? Why do banks control its quantity? How has the money system been used to liberate (not often) and oppress (most often) us? And how can the money system be “democratized” to rebuild our economy and society, create jobs and reduce debt? Our goal is to inform, intrigue and inspire through bite size weekly postings listing important events and quotes from prominent individuals (both past and present) on money, banking and how the money system can help people and the planet. We hope the sharing of bits of buried history will illuminate monetary and banking issues and empower you with others to create real economic and political justice. This calendar is the original project of the Northeast Ohio American Friends Service Committee. Adele Looney, Phyllis Titus, Donna Schall, Leah Davis, Alice Francini, Deb Jose and Greg Coleridge helped in its development. It is currently updated by Greg Coleridge. Please forward this to others and encourage them to subscribe. To subscribe/unsubscribe or to comment on any entry, email monetarycalendar@yahoo.com
To see the calendar year-to-date, go to https://monetarycalendar.wordpress.com/
A second historical calendar, the REAL Democracy History Calendar, in many ways complements this calendar. For information, go to https://realdemocracyhistorycalendar.wordpress.com/about/

MONETARY HISTORY CALENDAR: May 28 – June 3

grnback

MAY 28

2014 – STANLEY FISCHER BEGINS TERM AS A MEMBER OF THE BOARD OF GOVERNORS OF THE FEDERAL RESERVE SYSTEM. A MONTH LATER, HE BECAME VICE CHAIR
“I thought that when Dodd-Frank [proposed bank reform legislation] started, that the banks would not succeed in influencing it, having lost all the prestige they lost…Boy, was I wrong.”

MAY 29

1998 – DEATH OF BARRY GOLDWATER, REPUBLICAN SENATOR FROM ARIZONA
“The financial system has been turned over to the Federal Reserve Board. That Board administers the finance system by authority of a purely profiteering group. The system is Private, conducted for the sole purpose of obtaining the greatest possible profits from the use of other people’s money.”

MAY 30

1896 – DEATH OF MARK “BRICK” POMEROY, NEWSPAPER PUBLISHER, CURRENCY REFORMER AND ORGANIZER OF “GREENBACK CLUBS”
At the national Greenback Party convention in 1876, Pomeroy was named chairman of a committee to coordinate the activities of local Greenback clubs across the country. The clubs served as forums for monetary education and mobilization on behalf of the Greenback Party. During his leadership, Pomeroy claimed almost 6000 clubs had been chartered: the most in Missouri, followed by Illinois. Michigan, Iowa, Pennsylvania, Texas and New York followed in number of clubs.

1908 – ALDRICH-VREELAND ACT SIGNED BY PRESIDENT THEODORE ROOSEVELT
The Act established the National Monetary Commission recommending the Federal Reserve Act of 1913, creating the Federal Reserve System, the current private central bank (actually 12 banks to give the appearance of decentralization of economic power and control) of the US. The Aldrich-Vreeland Act was passed in response to the economic Panic of 1907 of bank failures. JP Morgan and other bankers who had been the target of Roosevelt’s trust busting efforts through more aggressive enforcement of the Sherman Anti-Trust Act manufactured the Panic. Through manipulating the stock market, calling in loans and not granting new ones, Morgan severely contracted the nation’s money supply. Thousands of banks were overextended. An economic crash followed. The Panic of ’07 was the pretext used to end the nation’s system of decentralized private banking by creating a system of centralized private banking – the Federal Reserve System.

MAY 31

1857 – BIRTH OF POPE PIUS XI
“For what will it profit men that a more prudent distribution and use of riches make it possible for them to gain even the whole world, if thereby they suffer the loss of their own souls?  What will it profit to teach them sound principles in economics, if they permit themselves to be so swept away by selfishness, by unbridled and sordid greed, that, ‘hearing the Commandments of the Lord, they do all things contrary.”

JUNE 1

1938 – BIRTH OF HERMAN DALY, ECONOMIST, AUTHOR OF “STEADY STATE ECONOMICS”
“If our present banking system, in addition to fraudulent and corrupt, also seems “screwy” to you, it should. Why should money, a public utility (serving the public as medium of exchange, store of value, and unit of account), be largely the by-product of private lending and borrowing?…Why should the public pay interest to the private banking sector to provide a medium of exchange that the government can provide at little or no cost? Why should seigniorage (profit to the issuer of fiat money) go largely to the private sector rather than entirely to the government (the commonwealth)?
“Is there not a better away? Yes, there is. We need not go back to the gold standard. Keep fiat money, but move from fractional reserve banking to a system of 100% reserve requirement…Banks would no longer be able to live the alchemist’s dream by creating money out of nothing and lending it at interest.”
From “Nationalize Money, Not Banks”

JUNE 2

1995 – PAPERBACK PUBLICATION OF “THE CHICAGO PLAN & NEW DEAL BANKING REFORM” BY RONNIE PHILLIPS
This work presents a comprehensive history and evaluation of the role of the 100 percent reserve plan in the banking legislation of the New Deal reform era from its inception in 1933 to its re-emergence in the current financial reform debate in the US.

JUNE 3

1864 – PASSAGE OF NATIONAL BANK ACT
The Act superseded the National Bank Act of 1863. Both Acts were pushed by bankers and their supporters to undercut Greenbacks. A system of nationally chartered, private/corporate banks was established and expanded. These new national banks were provided with virtually tax-free status and subsidized through purchasing of government bonds with discounted Greenbacks. These banks were permitted to then create “US Bank Notes” (debt-based money) which entered the money supply – to be used in payment of taxes and duties only. This system enriched banks and worked to wean the US away from Greenbacks (debt free money). The Act limited the issuance of Greenbacks to $300 million

———————–

Why this calendar? Many people have questions about the root causes of our economic problems. Some questions involve money, banks and debt. How is money created? Why do banks control its quantity? How has the money system been used to liberate (not often) and oppress (most often) us? And how can the money system be “democratized” to rebuild our economy and society, create jobs and reduce debt? Our goal is to inform, intrigue and inspire through bite size weekly postings listing important events and quotes from prominent individuals (both past and present) on money, banking and how the money system can help people and the planet. We hope the sharing of bits of buried history will illuminate monetary and banking issues and empower you with others to create real economic and political justice. This calendar is the original project of the Northeast Ohio American Friends Service Committee. Adele Looney, Phyllis Titus, Donna Schall, Leah Davis, Alice Francini, Deb Jose and Greg Coleridge helped in its development. It is currently updated by Greg Coleridge. Please forward this to others and encourage them to subscribe. To subscribe/unsubscribe or to comment on any entry, email monetarycalendar@yahoo.com
To see the calendar year-to-date, go to https://monetarycalendar.wordpress.com/
A second historical calendar, the REAL Democracy History Calendar, in many ways complements this calendar. For information, go to https://realdemocracyhistorycalendar.wordpress.com/about/

May 25: US Constitutional Convention begins

CoxMay29

 

Yet, we gave up this authority to the banksters and Federal Reserve who now with the exception of coins create OUR currency. Time to take it back via passage of the NEED Act.

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#NEEDAct #NewGreenDeal #ReviveTheNEEDAct