MONETARY HISTORY CALENDAR September 17 – 23

grnback

SEPTEMBER 17

1787 – CONSTITUTION DAY
“The Congress shall have power to…coin money [and] regulate the power thereof” Section 8, US Constitution.” “Coin” is a verb used in this way, representing the power to issue money. We the People possess the constitutional authority to issue and circulate our own money. Instead, we have permitted banking corporations to “privatize” the creation of money via loans (debt). This is both economic and political madness.

SEPTEMBER 18

1913 – US HOUSE OF REPRESENTATIVES PASSES FEDERAL RESERVE ACT
The effort to create a privately controlled (but promoted as publicly controlled and accountable) central bank moved one step closer to reality with passage by the House. Debate now turned to the Senate.

SEPTEMBER 19

1812 – DEATH OF MAYER AMSCHEL ROTHSCHILD, FOUNDER OF THE FAMILY FINANCIAL DYNASTY
An attributed quote: “Permit me to issue and control the money of a nation, and I care not who makes its laws.”

2008 – US TREASURY SUBMITS DRAFT LEGISLATION TO CONGRESS FOR AUTHORITY TO “PURCHASE TROUBLED ASSETS” (i.e. BAIL OUT BANKING CORPORATIONS)
U.S. Secretary of Treasury Hank Paulson, former Chair and CEO of Goldman Sachs banking corporation, submits on behalf of the Bush Administration legislation to Congress to bail out banking corporations that engaged in risky and bizarre mortgages and investments. The legislation, called the Troubled Asset Relief Program (TARP) was a whole 3-pages long. It requested a virtual $700 billion blank check for the Administration. Public outrage was fierce. Calls against the legislation to offices of some Senators and Representatives totaled 100 to 1 against it. The Administration was forced to pull the bill and substitute a new one later. The original TARP bill is at http://money.cnn.com/2008/09/20/news/economy/treasury_proposal/index.htm

2013 – STATEMENT ON CNBC BY BILLIONAIRE STANLEY DRUKENMILLER ON THE FEDERAL RESERVE
The Federal Reserve isn’t just inflating markets but is shifting a massive amount of wealth from the middle class and poor to the rich, according to billionaire hedge fund manager Stanley Druckenmiller.
In an interview on “Squawk Box,” the founder of Duquesne Capital said the Fed’s policy of quantitative easing was inflating stocks and other assets held by wealthy investors like him. But the price of making the rich richer will be paid by future generations.
“This is fantastic for every rich person,” he said Thursday, a day after the Fed’s stunning decision to delay tightening its monetary policy. “This is the biggest redistribution of wealth from the middle class and the poor to the rich ever.”
“Who owns assets—the rich, the billionaires. You think Warren Buffett hates this stuff? You think I hate this stuff? I had a very good day yesterday.”
Druckenmiller, whose net worth is estimated at more than $2 billion, said that the implication of the Fed’s policy is that the rich will spend their wealth and create jobs—essentially betting on “trickle-down economics.”
“I mean, maybe this trickle-down monetary policy that gives money to billionaires and hopefully we go spend it is going to work,” he said. “But it hasn’t worked for five years.”

SEPTEMBER 20

1878 – BIRTH OF UPTON SINCLAIR, AUTHOR AND ADVOCATE OF CALIFORNIA ECONOMIC COOPERATIVE PROGRAM
‘It is difficult to get a man to understand something, when his salary depends on his not understanding it.”

1954 – BIRTH OF LLOYD BLANKFELD, CEO AND CHAIRMAN OF GOLDMAN SACHS
“I am merely a banker doing God’s work.”

SEPTEMBER 21

1950 –FEDERAL DEPOSIT INSURANCE LIMIT RAISED
The popular FDIC (Federal Deposit Insurance Corporation) limit is raised by Congress to $10,000. The FDIC insures commercial bank deposits against loss due to bankruptcy or default. It was created following the Great Depression when depositors lost their savings when banks collapsed due to speculative investments and/or depositor fears, which led to a run on banks.

2008 – FEDERAL RESERVE BOARD APPROVES APPLICATIONS OF INVESTMENT BANKING CORPORATIONS GOLDMAN SACHS AND MORGAN STANLEY TO BECOME BANK HOLDING COMPANIES
Prior to the Great Depression, banking corporations could engage in both “commercial” (traditional loans to individuals and businesses) and “investment” (stock and other forms of speculative activities) activities. Overzealous speculation by banks using depositors’ money was one of the causes of the Depression. This led to the 1933 Glass Steagall Act, separating commercial from investment activities. This law was overturned in 1999, leading to a breach in the “firewall” keeping the two types of financial activities separate. This grant application allowed two of the largest investment banks on the planet to begin engaging in commercial banking activities.

2011 – NATIONAL EMERGENCY EMPLOYMENT DEFENSE (NEED) ACT REINTRODUCED IN CONGRESS BY US REPRESENTATIVE DENNIS KUCINICH (HR 2990)
The bill would shift the private Federal Reserve System to the US Treasury Department, end fractional reserve lending by banking corporations (which permits them to lend out many more times the amount of their deposits) and authorizes the US government (in accordance with Art 1, Sec 8 of the US Constitution) to print US money to repair our nation’s physical and human infrastructure. Money issued in this way by the US government is debt-free and inflation-free vs the financial industry which currently issues the vast majority of our nation’s money as debt. No longer would banking corporations have the license to create our nation’s money. That would become a public function.

2014 – FEAST OF ST. MATTHEW
Matthew 6:12, “And forgive us our debts, as we forgive our debtors” Born in Palestine sometime in the 1st century, St. Matthew was one of Jesus’s 12 apostles and also one of the four Evangelists, according to the Bible. Matthew authored the first Gospel of the Bible’s New Testament, now known as the Gospel of Matthew. Prior to preaching, he worked as a tax collector in Capernaum. Matthew is the patron saint of tax collectors and accountants. The Feast of St. Matthew is annually celebrated on September 21.

SEPTEMBER 22

1956 — DEATH OF FREDERICK SODDY, NOBEL LAUREATE
“It was recognized in Athens and Sparta…centuries before the birth of Christ that one of the most vital prerogatives of the State was the right to issue money.”
On money: “To allow it to become a source of revenue to private issuers is to create first, a secret and illicit arm of the government and last, a rival power strong enough ultimately to overthrow all other forms of government.”

1973 – HENRY KISSINGER SWORN IN AS 56TH US SECRETARY OF STATE
William Engdahl asserts in his introduction to Gods of Money that then-Secretary of State Henry Kissinger, a protégé of the powerful Rockefeller corporate empire, stated: “If you control the oil, you control entire nations; if you control the food, you control the people; if you control the money, you control the entire world.”

SEPTEMBER 23

1998 – TALK BY MICHAEL CHOSSUDOVSKY, PROFESSOR OF ECONOMICS
“Monetary policy is in the hands of private creditors who have the ability to freeze state budgets, paralyze the payments process, thwart the regular disbursement of wages to millions of workers and precipitate the collapse of production and social programs.”

———————–

Why this calendar? Many people have questions about the root causes of our economic problems. Some questions involve money, banks and debt. How is money created? Why do banks control its quantity? How has the money system been used to liberate (not often) and oppress (most often) us? And how can the money system be “democratized” to rebuild our economy and society, create jobs and reduce debt? Our goal is to inform, intrigue and inspire through bite size weekly postings listing important events and quotes from prominent individuals (both past and present) on money, banking and how the money system can help people and the planet. We hope the sharing of bits of buried history will illuminate monetary and banking issues and empower you with others to create real economic and political justice. This calendar is the original project of the Northeast Ohio American Friends Service Committee. Adele Looney, Phyllis Titus, Donna Schall, Leah Davis, Alice Francini, Deb Jose and Greg Coleridge helped in its development. It is currently updated by Greg Coleridge. Please forward this to others and encourage them to subscribe. To subscribe/unsubscribe or to comment on any entry, email monetarycalendar@yahoo.com
To see the calendar year-to-date, go to https://monetarycalendar.wordpress.com/
A second historical calendar, the REAL Democracy History Calendar, in many ways complements this calendar. For information, go to https://realdemocracyhistorycalendar.wordpress.com/about/

 

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MONETARY HISTORY CALENDAR: September 10 – 16

grnback

SEPTEMBER 10

2015 — 11TH ANNUAL MONETARY REFORM CONFERENCE, SPONSORED BY THE AMERICAN MONETARY INSTITUTE
The conference brings together some of the world’s most serious advocates of real and achievable monetary reforms. http://www.monetary.org/2015-ami-monetary-reform-conference
“The banking disaster, created and facilitated by false economic and monetary ideas, used by some very bad people, actually poses a real danger to the survival of the species. We must transform the ongoing disaster into an opportunity to achieve real and lasting monetary reforms for mankind. These are the reforms indicated as necessary by decades of study and centuries of experience…
“The main cause of the problem is using debt in place of money when the banks make loans, as our present system does. That single error, allowing banks to control our money system, promoted by those really trying to block monetary reform, and by some economics professors trying to keep their salary checks coming, is all it takes to wreck any monetary system, and begin the insane concentration of wealth, into exactly the wrong hands, as we now see in our society! The conference shows why money must be created by our government and spent into circulation on infrastructure, healthcare, and education. The conference highlights recent important moves in that direction by key people, and institutions, around the world.
“We have a once in several generations’ opportunity to fix an obviously flawed money system that is causing so much pain and hardship among a growing section of our people. It is clearly time to fix our monetary and banking system! Come and find out how, and the role you can play in that process.”
[Note: the 12 annual conference is September 29 – October 2. More information at http://www.monetary.org/%5D

SEPTEMBER 11

1857 – STEAMSHIP ‘CENTRAL AMERICA’ HIT BY HURRICANE, SINKS
In the second day of a hurricane, the ship sprang a huge leak. It sank the next day, drowning over 400 passengers and crew. The steamship had a million dollars in gold and silver onboard. It caused the Ohio Life and Trust Company to fail and sparked the Financial Panic of 1857 since money was backed by gold. Under such a metal-based money system, the less gold and silver, the fewer dollars in circulation. The fewer dollars, the less economic transactions occur, resulting in less production and more unemployment.

SEPTEMBER 12

2013 – TALK BY ADAIR TURNER, SENIOR FELLOW, INSTITUTE FOR NEW ECONOMIC THINKING, “CREDIT, MONEY AND LEVERAGE”
“Banks create credit, money and purchasing power. That fact is fundamental to macro-economic dynamics in any economy with a complex banking (or shadow banking) system: and fundamental to both the 2007 – 2008 financial crisis and the depth of the post crisis recession.”

1880 – BIRTH OF H. L. MENCKEN, AMERICAN JOURNALIST
“The whole aim of practical politics is to keep the populace in a continual state of alarm (and hence clamorous to be led to safety) by menacing them with an endless series of hobgoblins, all of them imaginary.”

SEPTEMBER 13

1785 – PENNSYLVANIA REPEALS THE CHARTER OF THE BANK OF NORTH AMERICA
This was the nation’s first private commercial bank, chartered by Congress under the Articles of Confederation. The Articles gave Congress the power to “emit bills of credit” — to create money. By a single vote, Congress voted to transfer their authority to issue money to the Bank, thus, become a quasi central bank. The Pennsylvania legislature repealed the Bank’s charter, which was significant since it primarily operated in just three states. Why did Congress willingly give up their money power in the first place? The public argument was that the business of finance could not be ably conduced by a public body (Congress) — only by a small number of private financiers.

1873 – NATION’S BIGGEST BANK, JAY COOKE & COMPANY, BECOMES EFFECTIVELY INSOLVENT
Congress had passed the Coinage Act earlier in the year, which ended the minting of silver dollars. US money system was, thus, backed only by gold. The effect was similar to other instances in US history when money was backed by gold — a depression ensued, prices fell, unemployment increased and major banks failed since there wasn’t enough gold to back the money needed to fuel the growing economy. Jay Cooke & Company was the largest bank to fail due to this policy of gold-backed money.

SEPTEMBER 14

1321 – DEATH OF DANTE, ITALIAN SCHOLAR AND POET, AUTHOR OF “THE DIVINE COMEDY”
The first portion of the epic poem, The Divine Comedy is called “Inferno,” which contains these words on usury:
“Once more go back a little to the point,”
I said, “where you state usury offends
The divine goodness, and untie the knot.”

“Philosophy, to one who understands,
Points out — and on more than one occasion —
How nature gathers her entire course

“From divine intellect and divine art.
And if you pore over your Physics closely,
You’ll find, not many pages from the start,

“That, when possible, your art follows nature
As a pupil does his master; in effect,
Your art is like the grandchild of our God.

“From art and nature, if you will recall
The opening of Genesis, man is meant
To earn his way and further humankind.

“But still the usurer takes another way:
He scorns nature and her follower, art,
Because he puts his hope in something else.”

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“Dante puts the usurers in the lowest sub-circle of the seventh circle of hell, with others whose sins are regarded as doing violence against nature and nature’s God; many people have noted that usurers are placed deeper into hell than violent murderers, violent suicides, blasphemers, and sodomites. Dante regards usurers as perverting art, i.e., productive skill, by means of which we are supposed to produce and create and thereby imitate the goodness of God. Usury is the anti-art: it produces nothing substantial; being just a set of multiplication games with money, and therefore does not really contribute anything to ‘earning one’s way and furthering humankind’. It merely gives the illusion of doing so, and is therefore a sort of mockery of both human reason and divine providence — indeed, a sort of universal violence against neighbor, God, and one’s own reason, an extraordinarily efficient form of violence by which you do the most damage with the least effort.”
http://branemrys.blogspot.com/2009/07/dante-on-usury.html

2012 – STATEMENT BY DONALD TRUMP, US BUSINESSMAN AND CURRENT REPUBLICAN PARTY PRESIDENTIAL CANDIDATE, ON THE FEDERAL RESERVE’S QUANTITATIVE EASING PROGRAM
“People like me will benefit from this.”

SEPTEMBER 15

2008 – LEHMAN BROTHER INC FILES FOR CHAPTER 11 BANKRUPTCY PROTECTIONS
Lehman was heavily involved in the subprime housing market. They borrowed substantially against their assets (leveraged) — 30 times the amount of their actual equities. Investment banks like Lehman were not under the same leverage limits as commercial banks, which invited greater risks. The $600 billion filing remains the largest bankruptcy filing in U.S. history.

SEPTEMBER 16

2003 – STATEMENT MADE ON THIS DAY BY HENRY C.K. LIU, PROFESSOR OF ECONOMICS
The current monetary system is a cruel hoax. There is virtually no “real” money in the system, only debts. Except for coins, which are issued by the government and make up only about one-thousandth of the money supply, the entire U.S. money supply now consists of debt to private banks, for money they created with accounting entries on their books.

2008 – FEDERAL RESERVE BAILS OUT AMERICAN INTERNATIONAL GROUP (AIG)
AIG was the largest insurance corporation, which had speculated in risky home mortgages. The Fed issued AIG $85 billion in credit in September 2008 to meet their financial obligations

———————–

Why this calendar? Many people have questions about the root causes of our economic problems. Some questions involve money, banks and debt. How is money created? Why do banks control its quantity? How has the money system been used to liberate (not often) and oppress (most often) us? And how can the money system be “democratized” to rebuild our economy and society, create jobs and reduce debt? Our goal is to inform, intrigue and inspire through bite size weekly postings listing important events and quotes from prominent individuals (both past and present) on money, banking and how the money system can help people and the planet. We hope the sharing of bits of buried history will illuminate monetary and banking issues and empower you with others to create real economic and political justice. This calendar is the original project of the Northeast Ohio American Friends Service Committee. Adele Looney, Phyllis Titus, Donna Schall, Leah Davis, Alice Francini, Deb Jose and Greg Coleridge helped in its development. It is currently updated by Greg Coleridge. Please forward this to others and encourage them to subscribe. To subscribe/unsubscribe or to comment on any entry, email monetarycalendar@yahoo.com
To see the calendar year-to-date, go to https://monetarycalendar.wordpress.com/
A second historical calendar, the REAL Democracy History Calendar, in many ways complements this calendar. For information, go to https://realdemocracyhistorycalendar.wordpress.com/about/

 

MONETARY HISTORY CALENDAR September 3 – 9

Greenbackk

SEPTEMBER 3

2014 – “CENTRAL BANK MONETARY POLICY ENABLES US TO PUT OFF REAL REFORMS” ARTICLE BY CHARLES HUGH SMITH
“I finally figured out that the core purpose of central banks’ monetary policy is to enable vested interests to avoid desperately needed reforms in the real economy. This might have been blindingly obvious to others, but I finally caught on to the dismaying reality: the only purpose of central bank monetary policy is to keep the bloated, corrupt, inefficient and self-liquidating vested interests of the state-cartel crony capitalism from having to suffer the consequences of real reforms. …
“In the U.S., we need look no farther than higher education, sickcare and national defense for state-cartels systems operating to benefit vested interests. The Federal Reserve’s policies of zero-interest rates (ZIRP) and free money for financiers have enabled these corrupt, self-serving, parasitic sectors to maintain their skims and bloated cost structure–but at the cost of hollowing out the economy and increasing the risk that the financial Ponzi scheme will collapse in a heap of leveraged phantom assets.
http://www.washingtonsblog.com/2014/09/central-bank-monetary-policy-enables-us-put-real-reforms.html

SEPTEMBER 4

2014 – QUESTIONS AND ANSWERS ON INDEPENDENCE AND MONETARY REFORM — VIDEO
Skip to 2:21:50 for the start of the question and answer session on how Scotland can change the banking and monetary system — not only in their own country but in setting a model for the world in democratizing money creation

2017 – LABOR DAY IN THE UNITED STATES
Begun by President Cleveland in 1894 as a means to distract attention and break solidarity of US workers from workers around the world that celebrated worker progress and activism on May Day (May 1).
The enactment of the National Emergency Employment Defense (NEED) Act, HR 2990 in the last Congress, would create 7 million jobs. The jobs would focus on repairing our nation’s infrastructure. The debt would not need to be raised. Taxes would not need to be imposed. Funding from any other public program would not have to be shifted. Public creation and circulation of U.S. money is all that would be required. Just as the colonists did when fighting the British. Just as President Lincoln did during the 1860 when creating Greenbacks. Just as economists proposed under the “Chicago Plan” during the 1930’s to President Roosevelt to move the nation out of the Great Depression.
For more information on the NEED Act, go to http://www.monetary.org/

SEPTEMBER 5

1927 – BIRTH OF PAUL VOLKER, FORMER CHAIR OF THE FEDERAL RESERVE BOARD
QE3 (the third round of Quantitative Easing – the creation and distribution of money by the Federal Reserve, which went largely to financial and other corporations) is the “most extreme easing of monetary policy” that he could ever remember. “Another round of QE is understandable – but it will fail to fix the problem. There is so much liquidity in the market that adding more is not going to change the economy.”

2016 – REPORT ON SOVEREIGN MONEY COMMISSIONED BY ICELAND’S PRIME MINISTER IS RELEASED
“On September 5th, the consulting company KPMG released a new report commissioned by the Prime Minister of Iceland aiming to clarify the main features of a sovereign money system as advocated by the IMMR. The launch event in Reykjavik featured a very supportive speech from the Financial Times’ chief economists commentator Martin Wolf and was commented by the Governor of the Central Bank of Iceland.
“One knows a subject is being taken seriously when the world’s biggest consultancies and accountancy firms such as KPMG start looking at them. The monetary reform movement just passed this milestone this week after KPMG Iceland released a new report entitled “Money Issuance: Alternative Monetary Systems”. The ~40 page report (pdf) was commissioned by the Prime Minister’s office. It provides an overview of the sovereign money proposal, including a summary of the latest political developments and the academic debate. While the report is quite accessible to read, it does not provide any recommendations on whether sovereign money should be implemented or not.”
http://internationalmoneyreform.org/blog/2016/09/kpmg-iceland-report-sovereign-money/

SEPTEMBER 6

1877 – NEW YORK TIMES ARTICLE ANNOUNCING FORMATION OF FARMER’S ALLIANCE IN LAMPASES, TX
Farmers in the West and South organized to collectively sell their produce, educate one another on economic and political issues and take political action. Among the central issues explored by Alliances and the later Populist Party were the issues of banking and money creation. They supported the creation of postal savings banks and a “sub-treasury” in which the government would create an “elastic” money supply that would stretch to meet emergencies and contract again when the need passed. It could be founded on a commodity possessed by every farmer – grain. The money supply would expand or contract depending on the harvest, but would circulate just like any money.

1943 – DEATH OF RICHARD MCKENNA, FORMER PRESIDENT, MIDLANDS BANK OF ENGLAND
“I am afraid that the ordinary citizen will not like to be told that the banks can and do create and destroy money. And they who control the credit of a nation direct the policy of governments, and hold in the hollow of their hands the destiny of the people.” (From a 1924 speech)

1951 – BIRTH OF WILLIAM BLACK, AMERICAN LAWYER, ACADEMIC, AUTHOR AND FORMER BANK REGULATOR
“The best way to rob a bank is to own one.”

SEPTEMBER 7

1867 – BIRTH OF JP MORGAN, JR, BANKER
Morgan was instrumental is providing financing several nations during World War I, including loans and other financial support to France, England and Russia. Accusations were made that this financial commitment led him to influence the Wilson Administration to enter the war.

2006 – STATEMENT OF NOURIEL ROUBINI, US ECONOMIST
Roubini warns the International Monetary Fund about a coming US housing crash, failures of mortgage-backed securities failures, bank failures, and a major recession. His work was based partly on his study of recent economic crises in Russia (1998), Argentina (2000), Mexico (1994), and Asia (1997). His warnings proved to be correct.

2013 – DEATH OF ALBERT BARTLETT, EMERITUS PROFESSOR OF PHYSICS AT THE UNIVERSITY OF COLORADO AT BOULDER
“The greatest shortcoming of the human race is our inability to understand the exponential function.” [Note: Exponential growth requires exponential resources – which are finite. If we have no energy, we have no economy. Also, exponential growth is mandatory under a debt-based money system since exponential natural resources must absolutely be plundered to produce endless stuff to sell to pay off the endless compounding/exponential interest connected to the endless debt. Multiple crashes are inevitable.]

SEPTEMBER 8

1999 – DEATH OF HERBERT STEIN, FORMER CHAIRMAN OF PRESIDENT’S COUNCIL OF ECONOMIC ADVISORS
“If something cannot go on forever, it will stop.”
[Note: Sounds like our current debt-based money system – an unsustainable system which can only continue if more debt is issued, which happens by banks when they issue loans and purchase treasury bonds, bills and notes]

SEPTEMBER 9

1801 – DEATH OF ROBERT YATES, POLITICIAN AND JUDGE
“I can scarcely contemplate a greater calamity that could befall this country, than be loaded with a debt exceeding their ability ever to discharge. If this be a just remark, it is unwise and improvident to vest in the general government a power to borrow at discretion, without any limitation or restriction.” – Brutus pseudonym, probably Robert Yates

1828 – BIRTH OF LEO TOLSTOY, RUSSIAN WRITER AND SOCIAL REFORMER
“Money is a new form of slavery, and distinguishable from the old simply by the fact that it is impersonal, there is no human relation between master and slave.”

1890 – BIRTH OF MARRINER S. ECCLES, FORMER CHAIRMAN AND GOVERNOR OF THE FEDERAL RESERVE SYSTEM
“That is what our money system is. If there were no debts in our money system, there wouldn’t be any money.”

———————–

Why this calendar? Many people have questions about the root causes of our economic problems. Some questions involve money, banks and debt. How is money created? Why do banks control its quantity? How has the money system been used to liberate (not often) and oppress (most often) us? And how can the money system be “democratized” to rebuild our economy and society, create jobs and reduce debt? Our goal is to inform, intrigue and inspire through bite size weekly postings listing important events and quotes from prominent individuals (both past and present) on money, banking and how the money system can help people and the planet. We hope the sharing of bits of buried history will illuminate monetary and banking issues and empower you with others to create real economic and political justice. This calendar is the original project of the Northeast Ohio American Friends Service Committee. Adele Looney, Phyllis Titus, Donna Schall, Leah Davis, Alice Francini, Deb Jose and Greg Coleridge helped in its development. It is currently updated by Greg Coleridge. Please forward this to others and encourage them to subscribe. To subscribe/unsubscribe or to comment on any entry, email monetarycalendar@yahoo.com
To see the calendar year-to-date, go to https://monetarycalendar.wordpress.com/
A second historical calendar, the REAL Democracy History Calendar, in many ways complements this calendar. For information, go to https://realdemocracyhistorycalendar.wordpress.com/about/

MONETARY HISTORY CALENDAR August 27 – September 2

grnback

AUGUST 27

2014 – “DETHRONE ‘KING DOLLAR’ OPED, NEW YORK TIMES BY JARED BERNSTEIN
“There are few truisms about the world economy, but for decades, one has been the role of the United States dollar as the world’s reserve currency. It’s a core principle of American economic policy. After all, who wouldn’t want their currency to be the one that foreign banks and governments want to hold in reserve?
But new research reveals that what was once a privilege is now a burden, undermining job growth, pumping up budget and trade deficits and inflating financial bubbles. To get the American economy on track, the government needs to drop its commitment to maintaining the dollar’s reserve-currency status.”
http://mobile.nytimes.com/2014/08/28/opinion/dethrone-king-dollar.html?_r=0

AUGUST 28

2014 – “A POSSIBLE TIPPING POINT FOR SCOTLAND” ARTICLE PUBLISHED ON POSITIVE MONEY WEBSITE
This is an excerpt from James Robertson’s newsletter:
“Scotland will hold a referendum on 18 September. It will decide whether the outcome will be “Yes, Scotland will be independent” or “No, Better Together“…
If the result is independence for Scotland, one particular question will be especially interesting: Money. It hasn’t been decided what currency an independent Scotland should use…
At present there is a comparatively high level of support in Scotland for a Yes referendum vote. But the prospective danger of expulsion from the UK sterling currency might start a shift of opinion towards a cautious No. If that happens, what rabbit could the Scottish National Party leader, Alex Salmond, and his colleagues pull out of their hat to counteract the shift?
It could be monetary reform. Alex Salmond could announce that the present Scottish Government is preparing a feasibility study in the light of the developments at Item 2 above. The study would report on whether, after winning a Yes referendum, an independent Scotland should adopt a democratic currency with a money supply created as a debt-free public service to society as a whole, instead of the present money supply created as debt by commercial banks at great profit to themselves and great cost to society at large.” http://positivemoney.org/2014/08/possible-tipping-point-scotland/
[NOTE: While the Scots voted against independence, sovereignty continues to be discussed there by more people in more countries in Europe and beyond – not only political sovereignty but monetary sovereignty – which, of course, is directly connected to political sovereignty. As the Greek experience shows, elected a government committed to investing in people is virtually impossible if you don’t have your own national currency and you are heavily indebted to financial institutions.]

AUGUST 29

1632 – BIRTH OF JOHN LOCKE, ENGLISH PHILOSOPHER
“Observe well these rules: It is a very common mistake to say that money is a commodity…Bullion is valued by its weight…money is valued by its stamp.”

1786 – BEGINNING OF SHAYS’ REBELLION
Sparked in large part by personal debt, nonpayment of salaries, and collapse of the national currency, farmers in Massachusetts, led by Daniel Shays, attack a US Armory. The lack of a focused response to the uprisings led to calls to reforming the Articles of Confederation. The Philadelphia Convention, which followed, rather than reforming the Articles of Confederation, created a new more centralized Constitution. While less democratic in many ways (as it was drafted by and gave exclusive rights only to white, male landowners), the new Constitution empowered the government to coin its own money, separate from banks and financial institutions.

2005 – DEATH OF JUDE THADDEUS WANNISKI, AMERICAN JOURNALIST AND POLITICAL ECONOMIST
“There was a big party at Morgan Stanley after the Mexican peso devaluation, people from all over Wall Street came, they drank champagne and smoked cigars and congratulated themselves on how they pulled it off and they made a fortune.”

AUGUST 30

1930 – BIRTH OF WARREN BUFFET, INVESTOR
“Derivatives are financial weapons of mass destruction.”

AUGUST 31

1959 – ROBERT B. ANDERSON, SECRETARY OF THE TREASURY UNDER PRESIDENT EISENHOWER
“When a bank makes a loan it simply adds to the borrowers’ deposit account in the bank by the amount of the loan. The money is not taken from anyone else’s deposit; it was not previously paid in to the bank by anyone. It’s new money, created by the bank for the use of the borrower.”

SEPTEMBER 1

1764 – PASSAGE OF BRITISH CURRENCY ACT
The Act banned Colonial paper money as legal tender, severely limiting commerce and widening the trade deficit between England and the Colonies. Colonists were forced to pay their taxes only in gold or silver. Many, including Benjamin Franklin, claimed this was one of the major triggers, if not the major trigger, of the Revolutionary War.

1894 – DATE AMERICAN BANKERS ASSOCIATION CALLS ON BANKS TO STOP LOANING MONEY TO CAUSE FORECLOSURES
American Bankers Association memo (as submitted into the Congressional Record): “On September 1, 1894, we will not renew our loans under any consideration. On September 1st we will demand our money. We will foreclose and become mortgagers in possession. We can take two-thirds of the farms west of the Mississippi, and thousands of them east of the Mississippi as well, at our own price… Then the farmers will become tenants as in England…”

SEPTEMBER 2

1839 – BIRTH OF HENRY GEORGE, ECONOMIST, POLITICIAN AND AUTHOR OF “PROGRESS AND POVERTY”
“[I]t is the business of government to issue money…To leave it to every one who chose to do so to issue money would be to entail general inconvenience and loss, to offer many temptations to roguery, and to put the poorer classes of society at a great disadvantage. These obvious considerations have everywhere, as society became well organized, led to the recognition of the coinage of money as an exclusive function of government. When, in the progress of society, a further labor-saving improvement becomes possible by the substitution of paper for the precious metals as the material for money, the reasons why the issuance of this money should be made a government function become still stronger. The evils entailed by wildcat banking in the United States are too well remembered to need reference. The loss and inconvenience, the swindling and corruption that flowed from the assumption by each State of the Union of the power to license banks of issue ended with the war, and no one would now go back to them. Yet instead of doing what every public consideration impels us to, and assuming wholly and fully as the exclusive function of the General Government the power to issue paper money, the private interests of bankers have, up to this, compelled us to the use of a hybrid currency, of which a large part, though guaranteed by the General Government, is issued and made profitable to corporations.”

1877 – BIRTH OF FREDERICK SODDY, NOBEL PRIZE RECIPIENT (CHEMISTRY) AND MONETARY REFORM AUTHOR
“There is nothing left now for us but to get ever deeper and deeper into debt to the banking system in order to provide the increasing amounts of money the nation requires for its expansion and growth. Our money system is nothing better than a confidence trick.”

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Why this calendar? Many people have questions about the root causes of our economic problems. Some questions involve money, banks and debt. How is money created? Why do banks control its quantity? How has the money system been used to liberate (not often) and oppress (most often) us? And how can the money system be “democratized” to rebuild our economy and society, create jobs and reduce debt? Our goal is to inform, intrigue and inspire through bite size weekly postings listing important events and quotes from prominent individuals (both past and present) on money, banking and how the money system can help people and the planet. We hope the sharing of bits of buried history will illuminate monetary and banking issues and empower you with others to create real economic and political justice. This calendar is the original project of the Northeast Ohio American Friends Service Committee. Adele Looney, Phyllis Titus, Donna Schall, Leah Davis, Alice Francini, Deb Jose and Greg Coleridge helped in its development. It is currently updated by Greg Coleridge. Please forward this to others and encourage them to subscribe. To subscribe/unsubscribe or to comment on any entry, email monetarycalendar@yahoo.com
To see the calendar year-to-date, go to https://monetarycalendar.wordpress.com/
A second historical calendar, the REAL Democracy History Calendar, in many ways complements this calendar. For information, go to https://realdemocracyhistorycalendar.wordpress.com/about/

MONETARY HISTORY CALENDAR August 20 – 26

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AUGUST 20

1935 – BIRTH OF RON PAUL, US CONGRESSMAN
Referring to the Federal Reserve, he stated, “maybe there’s too much power in the hands of those who control monetary policy? The power to create the financial bubbles. The power to maybe bring the bubble about. The power to change the value of the stock market within minutes. That to me is just an ominous power and challenges the whole concept of freedom and liberty and sound money.”

AUGUST 21

1824 – DEATH OF JOHN TAYLOR OF CAROLINE, US SENATOR OF VIRGINIA IN THE 19TH CENTURY
“As we all know that a regular influx of wealth, from a majority to a minority, is a regular influx of power, the United States ought to estimate the quantity of each, they are pouring into a banking interest. If no new banks should be created after 1808, nor the acquisition of the old increased, the five millions annually collected by the existing banks, at compound interest carry from the public to the corporations, in twenty years, above one hundred and eighty-four millions of dollars. Here is already a vast current of money and power running one way…”

2014 – PUBLICATION OF “PRINT LESS BUT TRANSFER MORE: WHY CENTRAL BANKS SHOULD GIVE MONEY DIRECTLY TO THE PEOPLE” BY MARK BLYTH AND ERIC LONGERGAN IN FOREIGN AFFAIRS
The article is at
http://www.foreignaffairs.com/articles/141847/mark-blyth-and-eric-lonergan/print-less-but-transfer-more#comment-1560497380
NOTE: Foreign Affairs are a publication of the power elite. Why would an article promoting giving money away to people be published in such a publication? Because the power elite knows that their financial system is in deep trouble. They’ve tried a zero interest rate policy (ZIRP) and Quantitative Easing (QE — which is printing money by the Federal Reserve and giving it to the banks and corporations), but the economy still hasn’t recovered. In fact, almost all economic fundamentals point to a severe downturn. The power elite, therefore, may be trying to get ahead of the economic populist curve by promoting what many at the grassroots say is a way to stimulate the economy — by giving money to people to spend into the economy and, thereby, increasing demand. This, in fact, is a provision of the National Emergency Employment Defense (NEED Act). Missing from the author’s analysis, however, is an examination of the “need” to end the ability of banking corporations to create money out of thin air as debt — which represents the vast majority of the money created in our society. The quantity and use of money in our society should by public decisions, not corporate banking decisions.

AUGUST 22

2009 – PUBLICATION OF “TWENTY QUESTIONS FREQUENTLY ASKED ABOUT THE AMERICAN MONETARY ACT”
The questions begin on p. 23 at http://www.monetary.org/wp-content/uploads/2011/09/32-page-brochure.pdf
Below is the 1st question asked and answered…
1) Won’t the government creating new money for infrastructure and other expenses cause inflation?
No. While this is an important concern, some of it is anti-governmental propaganda and it need not cause inflation, depending on where the new money goes, for example:
When new money is used to create real wealth, such as goods and services and the $2.2 trillion worth of public infrastructure building and repair the engineers tell us is needed over the next 5 years, there need not be inflation because real things of real value are being created at the same time as the money, and the existence of those real values for living, keeps prices down.
If it goes into warfare or bubbles (real estate/Wall Street/etc.) it would create inflationary bubbles with no real production of goods and services. That is the history of private control over money creation. It must end now. Government tends to direct resources more into areas of concern for the whole nation, such as infrastructure, health care, education, etc. The AMA Title 5 specifies infrastructure items including human infrastructure of health care and education to focus on.
Also remember, the American Monetary Act eliminates ‘fractional reserve banking’ which has been one of the main causes of inflation. And remember new money must be introduced into circulation as the population and economy grow or is improved, or we’d have deflation.

AUGUST 23

1935 – PASSAGE OF BANKING ACT
The law made the FDIC a permanent agency and raised the deposit insurance level to $5,000.
The Federal Reserve System was reformed with the transformation of the Federal Reserve Board of Directors to the Board of Governors. All board members were appointed by the President with the advice and consent of the Senate and the term of service were expanded to 14 years. Open-market operations were formalized in the Federal Open Market Committee and the Governors were allowed to determine interest rates and bank reserve requirements. These “reforms,” however, were window dressing. The power and authority to issue money as debt was retained in the hands of the private Federal Reserve and private banking corporations. Keeping reserve requirement decisions in the hands of the Fed only invited speculation and risk (reserve requirements are the ratio of money banks lend in excess of money they actually possess “in reserve” to cover loans. Banks loan many times the amount of funds in their reserve).

AUGUST 24

1916 – BIRTH OF ROBERT DE FREMERY, AUTHOR, RIGHTS VS PRIVILEGES
“It is not obvious that there are serious defects in our banking system and our tax system that deprive most of us of fundamental rights and bestow enormous privileges on others? How many riots must we endure? How many prisons must we build? How many of our rights must we lose? How many of our young people must be sent away to fight in foreign wars before we decide that enough is enough?”

1922 – BIRTH OF HOWARD ZINN, AUTHOR, PEOPLE’S HISTORY OF THE UNITED STATES
In response to the announcement that the Obama administration was going to give billions of tax dollars to the financial industry, he said:
“They’re really dedicated to keeping the financial system, which doesn’t mean us, doesn’t mean the people; it means the bankers, the banking industry, the lenders, the insurance companieskeeping them afloat by giving them hundreds and hundreds of billions of dollars. Now, it’s amusing to me to see that suddenly, in this past week or so, there’s been this flurry of anger about the fact that some of these companies that have been given hundreds of billions of dollars are giving out several hundred millions in bonuses. And Obama has I think very cleverly joined the indignation against the bonuses. But, after all, these hundreds of millions of dollars in bonuses come out of the hundreds of billions that have been given to these financial institutions. So instead of pointing to that, to this huge bailout, Obama and other people and this goes for the press too, the media — the media have seized upon it, television, newspapers all indignant and congressmen all indignant about the hundreds of millions of bonuses. Well, what about the hundreds of billions, leading up to trillions, really, given to the banks?”

AUGUST 25

2011 – OPENING OF “ECONOMIC SYMPOSIUM” SPONSORED BY FEDERAL RESERVE
“Each year since 1978, the Federal Reserve Bank of Kansas City has sponsored a symposium on an important economic issue facing the U.S. and world economies. Symposium participants include prominent central bankers, finance ministers, academics, and financial market participants from around the world. The participants convene to discuss the economic issues, implications, and policy options pertaining to the symposium topic. The symposium proceedings include papers, commentary, and discussion.”
The theme of 2011 event was “Achieving Maximum Long-Run Growth.” And how is “maximum long-run growth” possible when the current monetary/economic system is based on creating money by banking corporations out of thin air as debt and the only way to repay the debt (plus the interest which wasn’t created — only the principle) is to maximize the plundering of finite resources to produce ever more products?

AUGUST 26

2014 – ARTICLE, “OBAMA AND HOLDER’S WEAK CALL FOR JUSTICE” BY STEPHEN ZARLENGA AND NICK EGNATZ
“The claims of President Obama and Attorney General Holder that they seek justice in the death of unarmed teenager Michael Brown by a police officer in Ferguson, Missouri, have a hollow ring. They would be almost laughable, if the consequences, of who they, while in office, have actually chosen to prosecute and who they have not prosecuted, were not so destructive to true justice…
“Continuing their disregard for justice, President Obama and Attorney General Eric Holder have refused to prosecute the thousands of Wall Street bankers whose financial crimes were directly responsible for working class Americans losing trillions of dollars and over 9,000,000 homes foreclosed or in foreclosure!
http://www.huffingtonpost.com/stephen-zarlenga/obama-and-holders-weak-ca_b_5702895.html

———————–

Why this calendar? Many people have questions about the root causes of our economic problems. Some questions involve money, banks and debt. How is money created? Why do banks control its quantity? How has the money system been used to liberate (not often) and oppress (most often) us? And how can the money system be “democratized” to rebuild our economy and society, create jobs and reduce debt? Our goal is to inform, intrigue and inspire through bite size weekly postings listing important events and quotes from prominent individuals (both past and present) on money, banking and how the money system can help people and the planet. We hope the sharing of bits of buried history will illuminate monetary and banking issues and empower you with others to create real economic and political justice. This calendar is the original project of the Northeast Ohio American Friends Service Committee. Adele Looney, Phyllis Titus, Donna Schall, Leah Davis, Alice Francini, Deb Jose and Greg Coleridge helped in its development. It is currently updated by Greg Coleridge. Please forward this to others and encourage them to subscribe. To subscribe/unsubscribe or to comment on any entry, email monetarycalendar@yahoo.com
To see the calendar year-to-date, go to https://monetarycalendar.wordpress.com/
A second historical calendar, the REAL Democracy History Calendar, in many ways complements this calendar. For information, go to https://realdemocracyhistorycalendar.wordpress.com/about/

 

MONETARY HISTORY CALENDAR August 13 – 19

grnback

AUGUST 13

1946 – BIRTH OF JANET YELLEN, CHAIR OF THE BOARD OF GOVERNORS OF THE FEDERAL RESERVE SYSTEM
(2005, speech in San Francisco) – Yellen argued against deflating the housing bubble because – “arguments against trying to deflate a bubble outweigh those in favor of it” and predicted that the housing bubble “could be large enough to feel like a good-sized bump in the road, but the economy would likely be able to absorb the shock”.
(2010, Financial Crisis Inquiry Commission hearing) “For my own part, I did not see and did not appreciate what the risks were with securitization, the credit ratings agencies, the shadow banking system, the S.I.V.’s — I didn’t see any of that coming until it happened.”
So, what is Ms. Yellen and her colleagues at the Fed today not seeing and won’t “until it happens?”

AUGUST 14

1989 – DEATH OF ROBERT B. ANDERSON, SECRETARY OF TREASURY UNDER PRESIDENT EISENHOWER
“When a bank makes a loan it simply adds to the borrowers’ deposit account in the bank by the amount of the loan. The money is not taken from anyone else’s deposit; it was not previously paid in to the bank by anyone. It’s new money, created by the bank for the use of the borrower.”

AUGUST 15

1971 – PRESIDENT NIXON CLOSES “GOLD WINDOW”
Richard Nixon issues Executive Order 11615 freezing wages and prices. Foreign-held paper dollars are no longer converted for gold, thereby nullifying in an important aspect the Bretton Woods Agreement.

AUGUST 16

2009 – PUBLICATION OF “WHY STATES GOING INTO THE BANKING BUSINESS WOULD BE A DISTRACTION, NOT A SOLUTION TO THEIR FISCAL PROBLEMS”, BY JAMIE WALTON
“You don’t solve a problem with more of the problem.

This scheme for states to go into the banking business would only ‘serve to protect’ the status quo. The ‘proposal’ completely fails to confront the main problem identified by all serious monetary reforms: ‘fractional reserve’ banking. Instead, it actually endorses and sanctions this vicious and destructive process, by suggesting that State governments engage in it…”

http://www.monetary.org/american-money-scene-5-august-16-2009/2009/08

AUGUST 17

1932 – BIRTH OF GABRIEL KOLKO, HISTORIAN, AUTHOR OF THE “TRIUMPH OF CONSERVATISM: A REINTERPRETATION OF AMERICAN HISTORY”
“To precisely what was [Woodrow] Wilson committed? I am for big business and against the trusts,’ but he could not define the major difference between the two, and he never gave the matter serious thought.”

NOTE: Wilson signed the Federal Reserve Act of 1913, establishing the Federal Reserve System, the largely private/corporate central banking system in the US.

AUGUST 18

1850 – DEATH OF HONORE DE BALZAC, FRENCH NOVELIST AND PLAYWRIGHT
“The final battle for Christianity will be over the money problem, and until that is solved there can be no universal application of Christianity.”

AUGUST 19

2003 – DEATH OF DONALD WINN, ASSISTANT TO THE BOARD OF GOVERNORS OF THE FEDERAL RESERVE SYSTEM
“The Federal Reserve system pays the U.S. Treasury 020.60 per thousand notes –a little over 2 cents each– without regard to the face value of the note. Federal Reserve Notes, incidentally, are the only type of currency now produced for circulation. They are printed exclusively by the Treasury’s Bureau of Engraving and Printing, and the $20.60 per thousand price reflects the Bureau’s full cost of production. Federal Reserve Notes are printed in 01, 02, 05, 10, 20, 50, and 100 dollar denominations only; notes of 500, 1000, 5000, and 10,000 denominations were last printed in 1945.”

———————–

Why this calendar? Many people have questions about the root causes of our economic problems. Some questions involve money, banks and debt. How is money created? Why do banks control its quantity? How has the money system been used to liberate (not often) and oppress (most often) us? And how can the money system be “democratized” to rebuild our economy and society, create jobs and reduce debt? Our goal is to inform, intrigue and inspire through bite size weekly postings listing important events and quotes from prominent individuals (both past and present) on money, banking and how the money system can help people and the planet. We hope the sharing of bits of buried history will illuminate monetary and banking issues and empower you with others to create real economic and political justice. This calendar is the original project of the Northeast Ohio American Friends Service Committee. Adele Looney, Phyllis Titus, Donna Schall, Leah Davis, Alice Francini, Deb Jose and Greg Coleridge helped in its development. It is currently updated by Greg Coleridge. Please forward this to others and encourage them to subscribe. To subscribe/unsubscribe or to comment on any entry, email monetarycalendar@yahoo.com
To see the calendar year-to-date, go to https://monetarycalendar.wordpress.com/
A second historical calendar, the REAL Democracy History Calendar, in many ways complements this calendar. For information, go to https://realdemocracyhistorycalendar.wordpress.com/about/

MONETARY HISTORY CALENDAR August 6 – 12

grnback

AUGUST 6

1893 – BIRTH OF WRIGHT PATMAN, DEMOCRATIC CONGRESSMAN FROM TEXAS, CHAIRMAN OF US HOUSE COMMITTEE ON BANKING & CURRENCY (1965-75)
“I have never yet had anyone who could, through the use of logic and reason, justify the Federal Government borrowing the use of its own money I believe the time will come when people will demand that this be changed. I believe the time will come in this country when they will actually blame you and me and everyone else connected with Congress for sitting idly by and permitting such an idiot system to continue.”
“The Constitution of the U.S. says that Congress shall coin money and regulate its value. That does not mean that the Congress of the U.S., composed of the duly elected representatives of the people, have a right to farm out the great privilege to the banking system, until today a few powerful bankers control the issuance & distribution of money — something that the Constitution of the U.S. says Congress shall do.”

AUGUST 7

1946 – FIRST COIN IN THE U.S. AUTHORIZED BEARING THE PORTRAIT OF AN AFRICAN AMERICAN
The coin was the Booker T. Washington Silver Half Dollar Commemorative Coin. Commemorative Coins, designed to honor special people, place, events and institutions, aren’t usually minted for circulation even though they are legal tender. The coin was designed by Isaac Scott Hathaway, the first African American man to design a U.S. coin with a African American face on it. He later designed the George Washington Carver coin.

2015 – SECOND NIGHT OF THE OPENING OF “HAMILTON” ON BROADWAY
The rap musical opened last night at the Richard Rodgers Theatre. Inspired by the 2004 biography “Alexander Hamilton” by Ron Chernow, the musical won 11 Tony Awards in 2016, including best musical and book of a musical. It lauds the contributions of one of nation’s “founding fathers,” and first Treasury Secretary.

There was another side to Hamilton that the rap musical didn’t glorify – his effort to privatize money creation in the new country from We the People to financiers through the establishment of the First Bank of the United States, an entity Thomas Jefferson called “one of the most deadly hostile against the principles of our Constitution,” which, “in a critical moment might overthrow the government.”

The timing of the musical release took place ironically when awareness was growing of the modern dangers to private banks controlling the printing and distribution as debt of our nation’s money and calls by some to replace Hamilton on the $10 bill.

AUGUST 8

1916 – BIRTH OF HERBERT STEIN, FORMER CHAIRMAN OF PRESIDENT’S COUNCIL OF ECONOMIC ADVISORS
Stein’s law: “If something cannot go on forever, it will stop.”
[Sounds like our current debt-based money system – an unsustainable system which can only continue if more debt is issued, which happens when banking corporations issue loans and purchase treasury bonds, bills and notes]

AUGUST 9

1836 – BIRTH OF ALEXANDER DEL MAR, AMERICAN POLITICAL ECONOMIST, HISTORIAN, NUMISMATIST, AUTHOR, DIRECTOR US BUREAU OF STATISTICS
“As a rule political economists…don’t take the trouble to study the history of money; it is much easier to imagine it and to deduce the principles of this imaginary knowledge.”
“[T]he State alone had the right to issue money and to decide of what substances its symbols should be made, whether of gold, silver, brass or paper. Whatever the State declared to be money was money.”
“Lexington and Concord were trivial acts of resistance, which chiefly concerned those who took part in them and which might have been forgiven; but the creation and circulation of bills of credit by revolutionary assemblies in Massachusetts and Philadelphia were the acts of a whole people, and coming, as they did, upon the heels of the strenuous efforts made by the Crown to suppress paper money in America, they constituted acts of defiance so contemptuous and insulting to the Crown, that forgiveness was thereafter impossible…Thus the bills of credit of this era, which ignorance and prejudice have attempted to belittle into the mere instruments of a reckless financial policy, were really the standard of the Revolution. They were more than this: they were the Revolution itself.”

1944 – BIRTH OF WILLIAM ENGDAHL, AUTHOR OF “GODS OF MONEY”
“Since 1945, American hegemony, or more accurately an American imperium, has rested on two firm pillars of support! The 1st pillar has been the role of the dollar as unchallenged world reserve currency in which New York’s Wall St. is the center of global finance, the ‘banker to the world’. The 2nd has been the role of the Pentagon and the unchallenged dominance of American military power.”

1989 – FINANCIAL INSTITUTIONS REFORM RECOVERY AND ENFORCEMENT ACT (FIRREA) ENACTED
The law passed in response to the 1980’s savings and loan crisis – in which. FIRREA created the Resolution Trust Corporation, which bailed out failed institutions primarily through taxation. It also shifted regulatory authority from the Federal Home Loan Bank Board to the Office of Thrift Supervision within the Department of the Treasury.
It should be noted that more than more than a thousand felony convictions followed the savings-and-loan scandal of the 1980s and early 1990s. There have been virtually no investigations, let alone convictions, of those responsible for the 2007-2008 global financial meltdown triggered by US financial institutions.

AUGUST 10

1863 – BIRTH OF ALFRED OWEN CROSIER, PROMINENT OHIO ATTORNEY AND AUTHOR
Crosier wrote widely against the power and influence held by Wall Street Bankers. Crozier wrote eight books, including The Magnet and U.S. Money vs. Corporation Currency, which served to warn the country of the replacement of the country’s currency by notes printed by private banking corporations. A wonderful display of political cartoons from his book, US Money vs. Corporations Currency is at http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=q4qQ59w4ML4

1868 – BIRTH OF PAUL WARBURG, US BANKER
Warburg guided the operations of the National Citizens League, an organization formed in 1911 with $5 million in contributions from the big New York banks (including those owned by Rockefeller and J.P Morgan) to establish an “educational fund.” The fund financed respected university professors to endorse the concept of creating a private central bank, which became the Federal Reserve Bank, created by the 1913 Federal Reserve Act.

1929 – THE FEDERAL RESERVE BEGINS TO TIGHTEN THE MONEY SUPPLY – LEADS TO GREAT DEPRESSION
The Federal Reserve sharply raises the interest rate it charges local banks to borrow money (called the “discount rate”). At the same time, it begins to sell its government securities (remember, the Fed is not part of the federal government, despite its name, but rather a largely private entity controlled by 12 reserve banks which are controlled by banks). These actions were the seeds, which led to the Great Depression – as limited money in circulation prevents business and commercial transactions from occurring.

1930- BIRTH OF GEORGE GOODMAN, AUTHOR, “THE MONEY GAME”
“[T]hose who live by numbers can also perish by them, and it is a terrifying thing to have an adding machine write an epitaph, either way.”

AUGUST 11

1943 – BIRTH OF NICOLAUS TIDEMAN, PROFESSOR OF ECONOMICS, VIRGINIA TECH AND FORMER SENIOR ECONOMIST FOR THE PRESIDENT’S COUNCIL OF ECONOMIC ADVISORS
“Money is what people make sure they have when they want to buy things. Something works as money when people expect others to accept it as payment. Sometimes money is a valuable commodity, such as gold, wampum, or packs of cigarettes. More often, especially these days, money consists of pieces of paper.
The pieces of paper that serve as money have sometimes been issued by governments and sometimes by banks…What gives paper money its value to the general public is the expectation that a party with whom many will have occasion to trade will accept the paper as the basis for crediting the person who presents it. The crediting can take the form of payment of taxes, payment of loans, payment of religious obligations, or, as with paper money issued by banks and some paper money issued by governments, the crediting can take the form of obliging the issuer to exchange the paper for some specified thing of value…
In those cases in which the crediting takes the form of obliging the issuer to exchange the paper for a specified thing of value, the paper money can be described as the record of a promise to pay a debt on demand, and if that is the only form of money, then an expansion of the money supply requires an expansion of debt. But other forms of paper money are not debt. In particular, a paper money that consists of fiat currency issued by a government, good for the payment of taxes but not otherwise guaranteed to be convertible is not debt.”

AUGUST 12

1933 – PUBLISHED REPORT, “CLOSED BANKS AND BANKING REFORM” BY CQ RESEARCHER
“The many bank failures occurring in the United States during 1930, 1931, and 1932, culminating in the closing of all banks on March 6. 1933, and the failure of many to reopen at the termination of the banking holiday caused widespread concern as to the fundamental soundness of the dual banking system and of American banking methods in general. Provision for certain radical changes in banking practice was made by the Glass-Steagall act, passed at the close of the special session of the 73rd Congress. It was generally felt, however, that a more thoroughgoing reform of the whole system was needed. In this connection, the movement toward unification of the state and federal banking systems, with possible federalization of all banks, appears to have been gaining headway. While the views of the administration on the question have not been made known, it is thought likely that the President will recommend enactment of new banking legislation by Congress at the regular session in January, 1934.”
[NOTE: A reform not made was one that was suggested by hundreds of economists of the day — to democratize money creation via what was called “The Chicago Plan,” specifically for the government to create money as an asset (not as debt which is what banks do) and 100% reserve requirement of banks (i.e. banks could only lend money that they actually possessed).

———————–

Why this calendar? Many people have questions about the root causes of our economic problems. Some questions involve money, banks and debt. How is money created? Why do banks control its quantity? How has the money system been used to liberate (not often) and oppress (most often) us? And how can the money system be “democratized” to rebuild our economy and society, create jobs and reduce debt? Our goal is to inform, intrigue and inspire through bite size weekly postings listing important events and quotes from prominent individuals (both past and present) on money, banking and how the money system can help people and the planet. We hope the sharing of bits of buried history will illuminate monetary and banking issues and empower you with others to create real economic and political justice. This calendar is the original project of the Northeast Ohio American Friends Service Committee. Adele Looney, Phyllis Titus, Donna Schall, Leah Davis, Alice Francini, Deb Jose and Greg Coleridge helped in its development. It is currently updated by Greg Coleridge. Please forward this to others and encourage them to subscribe. To subscribe/unsubscribe or to comment on any entry, email monetarycalendar@yahoo.com
To see the calendar year-to-date, go to https://monetarycalendar.wordpress.com/
A second historical calendar, the REAL Democracy History Calendar, in many ways complements this calendar. For information, go to https://realdemocracyhistorycalendar.wordpress.com/about/