Monetary History Calendar: March 31 – April 6

Greenbackk

https://monetarycalendar.wordpress.com/2019/03/31/march-31-april-6/

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Young people expose money creation myth

PINE

An Open Letter to the Dean of SBE and all Economics Professors at Maastricht University (UM)
https://pinemaastricht.wordpress.com/pine-open-letter/?fbclid=IwAR3Sv7A1ReZTGUsd1Ks7FiMANBXOzCybqHpedMXG6Pnd2uuUyvHhDOM7JqE

Young people are increasingly stepping up to demand systemic change on many fronts — not just ecological but economic.

Here, it’s economic students blowing a hole into arguably THE greatest financial myth of all time — that banking corporations only lend money that they have. Total and complete BS. They create it out of thin air as debt. Why does this matter? When you add the fact that most money creation in our society originates from financial institutions as debt and that corporate money creation is THE greatest example of corporatization/ privatization in our society (a mammoth corporate coup since Art 1, Sec 8 of the U.S. Constitution gives Congress the power to coin money), what we have is a political and financial system controlled by financial corporations.

We’re all in debt to financial corporations — individuals, governments, even non-financial corporations. That means we’re all serfs to financial institutions. Even if you personally have no debt, a portion of everything you buy is priced to account for the debt of the producer.

Democratizing our money system goes hand-in-hand with democratizing our political system and Constitution. Good luck trying to having a real political democracy when banking corporations can create money out of nothing and convert their financial power into political power. The FIRE (Finance, Insurance, Real Estate) industry remains #1 in legalized bribery (political donations) and right up there in lobbying. It’s been this way (sometimes dropping all the way down to #2) for a long time.

It’s also is directly connected to saving the planet. How? Under the current debt-based corporate money system, the only way to collectively to pay off debt (not just the principle, but interest — which wasn’t created by financial corporations) is to race and compete with one another in a system where there isn’t enough money to pay off our loans. We must race as fast as possible to earn as much as we can in competition with others, which for many in our economy means working at jobs which convert natural resources into stuff that can be sold/consumed as quickly as possible, which of course results in massive amounts of ecological “externalities” (trash, garbage, pollution). We absolutely MUST plunder the planet to collectively pay off our debts. Of course, it’s in the end a losing proposition for the losers of this race. The result — like addicts, more debt to pay off past debt (which of course means more interest payments due which weren’t created). It’s why we have cyclical financial bubbles and bursts of those bubbles when people/governments/non-financial corporations see more of their debt payments going to pay just the interest.

We’re now in the midst of the mother of all bubbles (what some call “the everything bubble” — the bursting of which in the next year or two will be devastating.

The alternative is publicly-created debt-free and inflation-free money. WE decide how much is created and where it should be spent, not financial corporations. Human and physical infrastructure is the priority. It’s how to fund any real Green New Deal. It’s what the NEED Act of a few years ago was all about.

Of course, we don’t have the people power to force the end of the banking coup of money creation. That must be the first step. And that’s where the #WethePeopleAmendment sponsored by #MovetoAmendcomes in. We have to take charge of our political system.

It won’t be easy.

The Second National Bank of the U.S. threatened to cause a financial depression (by calling in all their loans) when their corporate charter was not going to be renewed in the 1830’s. Cleveland’s banks threatened default of the city (and followed through) when then Mayor Dennis Kucinich refused to sell the city’s public electrical utility to CEI, the private electric utility (tied to the banks). By the way, Kucinich was the main sponsor of the NEED Act when in Congress. He gets it. We must too.

Financial corporations have the most to lose to democratize our political and monetary systems. They will both push (lobbying and political investments/contributions) and pull (call in loans) as means to disrupt, demean and distract.

What choice to we have?

MONETARY HISTORY CALENDAR March 5 – 11

lincolngback

MARCH 5

1997 – SPEECH BY EARL OF CAITHNESS IN THE HOUSE OF LORDS, UK
“[I]t is also a good time to stand back, to reassess whether our economy is soundly based. I would contest that it is not, not for the reason to which the noble Lord, Lord Eatwell, alluded, which is that it is the Government’s fault, but our whole monetary system is utterly dishonest, as it is debt-based. ‘Dishonest’ is a strong word, but a system which by its very actions causes the value of money to decrease is dishonest and has within it its own seeds of destruction…Governments…have abdicated their responsibility for producing new money and controlling the money supply so that now they are marginalized…The next government must grasp the nettle, accept their responsibility for controlling the money supply and change from our debt-based monetary system. My Lords, will they? If they do not, our monetary system will break us and the sorry legacy we are already leaving our children will be a disaster.”

MARCH 6

1933 — FRANKLIN ROOSEVELT ISSUES EXECUTIVE PROCLAMATION 2039 DECLARING A BANK “HOLIDAY”
The “holiday” meant that all banks would be closed from March 6-10 to prevent further runs by depositors. Bank failures were a result of earlier speculative investments and banks loaning out more money than they actually possessed (called “fractional reserve banking”). When too many people came to a bank at the same time wanting their deposits, the banks collapsed since they lacked sufficient assets. The bank “holiday” was meant to restore confidence in the banking system.

1926 – BIRTH OF ALAN GREENSPAN, CHAIRMAN OF THE US FEDERAL RESERVE SYSTEM
“I guess I should warn you, if I turn out to be particularly clear, you’ve probably misunderstood what I’ve said.”
“Do you feel that your ideology pushed you to make decisions that you wish you had not made?”
Mr. Greenspan conceded: “Yes, I’ve found a flaw. I don’t know how significant or permanent it is. But I’ve been very distressed by that fact…Those of us who have looked to the self-interest of lending institutions to protect shareholders’ equity, myself included, are in a state of shocked disbelief,” he told the House Committee on Oversight and Government Reform.

2013 – TESTIMONY OF US ATTORNEY GENERAL ERIC HOLDER BEFORE SENATE JUDICIARY COMMITTEE ON PROSECUTING LARGE BANKS
“I am concerned that the size of some of these institutions becomes so large that it does become difficult for us to prosecute them when we are hit with indications that if you do prosecute, if you do bring a criminal charge, it will have a negative impact on the national economy, perhaps even the world economy.” This from the chief law enforcement officer of a justice system that has practically abolished the constitutional right to trial for poorer defendants charged with certain crimes. It is not too much to say that Wall Street has virtually, if not actually, captured the federal government.

MARCH 7

322 BC – DEATH OF ARISTOTLE
“Money exists not by nature but by law” (Ethics, 1133)
Aristotle understood that no natural substance qualifies as money. Rather, it’s governments that determine the definition of money.

1976 – DEATH OF WRIGHT PATMAN, DEMOCRATIC CONGRESSMAN FROM TEXAS, CHAIRMAN OF US HOUSE COMMITTEE ON BANKING & CURRENCY (1965-75)
“When our Federal Government, that has the exclusive power to create money, creates that money and then goes into the open market and borrows it and pays interest for the use of its own money, it occurs to me that that is going too far. I have never yet had anyone who could, through the use of logic and reason, justify the Federal Government borrowing the use of its own money… I am saying to you in all sincerity and with all the earnestness that I possess, it is absolutely wrong for the Government to issue interest-bearing obligations. It is not only wrong; it is extravagant. It is not only extravagant, it is wasteful. It is absolutely unnecessary.
“Now, I believe the system should be changed. The Constitution of the United States does not give the banks the power to create money. The Constitution says that Congress shall have the power to create money, but now, under our system, we will sell bonds to commercial banks and obtain credit from those banks.
“I believe the time will come when people will demand that this be changed. I believe the time will come in this country when they will actually blame you and me and everyone else connected with this Congress for sitting idly by and permitting such an idiotic system to continue. I make that statement after years of study.
“We have what is known as the Federal Reserve Bank System. That system is not owned by the Government. Many people think that it is, because it says `Federal Reserve’. It belongs to the private banks, private corporations. So we have farmed out to the Federal Reserve Banking System that is owned exclusively, wholly, 100 percent, by the private banks — we have farmed out to them the privilege of issuing the Government’s money. If we were to take this privilege back from them, we could save the amount of money that I have indicated in enormous interest charges.”

MARCH 8

1702 – BIRTH OF WILLIAM III, KING OF ENGLAND
He agreed in 1694 to give up his sovereign power as King to print or coin his nation’s own money to a new corporation, the Bank of England (It was a weakened monarchy).

MARCH 9

1933 – CONGRESS PASSES EMERGENCY BANKING ACT
Among its provisions, the Act gave the President the ability to declare a national emergency and have absolute control over the national finances and foreign exchange of the United States. It also allowed for closing insolvent banks. The Act empowered the President during time of war or other emergency to regulate or prohibit the exporting, hoarding, melting or earmarking of gold and silver coin and bullion. All US residents were compelled to pay or deliver all gold (be it coins, bullion or certificates) to the Secretary of the Treasury. They were paid the market value for their gold in dollars. Shortly afterwards, the government significantly raised the price of gold, which in effect, reduced the value of the dollar.

MARCH 10

1933 – LAST DAY OF “BANK HOLIDAY” DECLARED BY PRESIDENT ROOSEVELT
The “holiday” meant that all banks would be closed from March 6-10 to prevent further runs by depositors. Bank failures were a result of earlier speculative investments and banks loaning out more money than they actually possessed (called “fractional reserve banking”). When too many people came to a bank at the same time wanting their deposits, the banks collapsed since they lacked sufficient assets. The bank “holiday” was meant to restore confidence in the banking system. At the conclusion of the “holiday,” 5% of all banks were unfit to continue business, many others only were permitted to accept deposits, while others permitted only a certain percentage of deposits to be withdrawn. Slightly more than 50% of all banks reopened with no withdraw restrictions.

2000 – EVE OF DOTCOM BUBBLE CRASH
The combined values of stocks on the NASDAQ was at $6.71 trillion on March 10. The market began crashing the next day. By March 30, the NASDAQ was valued at $6.02 trillion. It dropped to $5.78 trillion by April 6. Nearly a trillion dollars worth of stock value had evaporated in less than a month. What goes boom eventually goes bust in an economy with private control of the money system

MARCH 11

1893 – PUBLICATION OF “PANIC CIRCULAR” BY THE AMERICAN BANKERS ASSOCIATION [Note: Many individuals, including several US public officials, claimed they received the document. The American Bankers Association denied its authenticity].
The document calls on member banks to incite a financial panic to prevent greater public controls of banks, to counter increased public sentiment toward government-issued money and as a means to oppose silver (as opposed to gold) being used as a backing for currency.
The alleged document stated,
“You will at once retire one-third of your circulation (your paper money) and call in one-half of your loans. Be careful to make a monetary [emergency] among your patrons, especially among influential businessmen…
“The future life of national banks as fixed and safe investments depends upon immediate action, as there is an increasing sentiment in favor of Government legal-tender notes and silver coinage.

———————–

Why this calendar? Many people have questions about the root causes of our economic problems. Some questions involve money, banks and debt. How is money created? Why do banks control its quantity? How has the money system been used to liberate (not often) and oppress (most often) us? And how can the money system be “democratized” to rebuild our economy and society, create jobs and reduce debt? Our goal is to inform, intrigue and inspire through bite size weekly postings listing important events and quotes from prominent individuals (both past and present) on money, banking and how the money system can help people and the planet. We hope the sharing of bits of buried history will illuminate monetary and banking issues and empower you with others to create real economic and political justice. This calendar is a project of the Northeast Ohio American Friends Service Committee. Adele Looney, Phyllis Titus, Donna Schall, Leah Davis, Alice Francini, Deb Jose and Greg Coleridge helped in its development. Please forward this to others and encourage them to subscribe. To subscribe/unsubscribe or to comment on any entry, email monetarycalendar@yahoo.com
To see the calendar year-to-date, go to https://monetarycalendar.wordpress.com/
A second historical calendar, the REAL Democracy History Calendar, in many ways complements this calendar. For information, go to https://realdemocracyhistorycalendar.wordpress.com/about/

Don’t Pursue Rogue Alternatives to Fund Federal Infrastructure Plan

looking-for-a-loan-dont-wait-for-a-big-bank1

“Rogue One” is not simply the title of the latest Star War film due out this week. It’s also a dead-on accurate description of the institution being suggested as the go-to source to fund President-elect Trump’s $1 trillion proposal to repair, modernize and expand our nation’s infrastructure. The institutional Rogue, Darth Vader, Death Star or Dark Side (take your pick among Star Wars metaphors) that some are seriously suggesting to provide the stimulus to our economy are super duper big banking corporations directly responsible for the financial implosion a few years ago, instead of We the People and our public power to create debt-free and interest-free money to meet our basic needs.

There’s no debate on the following:

  • Our roads, bridges, water and sewer systems, public transit systems, schools and other basic physical public structures are rapidly crumbling,
  • Bi-partisan political will exists to address infrastructure needs across the country, and,
  • President-elect Trump and his advisors, specifically Treasury Secretary nominee Steven Mnuchin and chief advisor Stephen Bannon say they are open to exploring literally all solutions to fund the program over 10 years — an approach described by Bannon as “We’re just going to throw it up against the wall and see if it sticks.”

Many claim, including the prestigious American Society of Civil Engineers, that $3.6 trillion (as estimated in 2013) is needed by 2020 to serious address our infrastructure needs. Whatever the amount, the question of how it’s going to be paid for is central.

No one supports raising taxes. This is a political non-starter.

Several of Trump’s economic advisors proposed several months ago providing tax credits to private investors. This and other ideas fall into the category of Public-Private Partnerships, which have a demonstrated history of being ineffective and expensive.

Ellen Brown in a recent article commenting on Trump’s infrastructure plan correctly asserts, “net new spending requires net new money.” There simply isn’t enough money in the current money or monetary system to fund even $1 trillion without taking it from somewhere else and, thus, causing economic pain — a “robbing Peter to pay Paul” dilemma.

The question is who, or what, should create the needed new money? That would be money created “out of this air,” which is how most new money in our society is created — not simply by printing paper notes, but by crediting a sum to a borrower in their account by computer key strokes (97% of our nation’s money is created in this way).

The U.S. Constitution allows for the public creation of money. President Lincoln took this very step to pay for the Civil War. Several hundred prominent economists urged the same strategy in their “Chicago Plan” during the 1930’s to President Roosevelt as a means to stimulate the economy out of the depression/recession (sound familiar?).

A more up-to-date and complete version of the Chicago Plan was introduced twice in Congress over the last few years — the National Emergency Employment Defense (NEED) Act, which has three critical and inter-related components:

  • Making the Federal Reserve a public agency and no longer influenced by banking corporations,
  • Ending the ability of banks to create money “out of thin air” — only able to lend what they have in their vault or able to borrow (called “fractional reserve lending”),
  • Empowering the federal government as affirmed in Article I of the U.S. Constitution to create and distribute U.S. money — specifically several trillion dollars to repair, modernize and expand our nation’s physical and human infrastructure, which would result in the employment of millions of people and paid with interest- and debt-free money.

Brown assesses in her Trump’s infrastructure article the public money option the following:

“But the current conservative Congress is likely to balk at that solution. A more acceptable alternative in that case could be to borrow from banks. Ideally, this would be the central bank, since the loan would be interest-free and could be rolled over indefinitely. But borrowing from private banks would also work, since they too simply create the money they lend on their books.”

Of course Congress is going to balk at creating public money. Banking corporations have hijacked for decades the political process via lobbyists galore and campaign contributions/investments as high as the Washington Monument. It’s a major part of the political “swamp” that Trump railed against during his campaign and that his supporters applauded.

Instead, what’s proposed is the “more acceptable alternative…to borrow from banks,” which also creates money out of thin air as debt and which, by the way, also charge interest. It’s acceptable to banking corporations all right. It should be unacceptable, though, to the millions of Americans whose futures, neighborhoods and communities were killed by the too-big-to-fail Death Star banking corporations that became even too-bigger-to-fail by profiting from home foreclosure schemes and from all taxpayers who bailed them out. There would be nothing more to the liking of the big banks that to come across as the white knights that came to the rescue of the U.S. economy when We the People could have saved ourselves.

Thomas Edison once said:

“If our nation can issue a dollar bond, it can issue a dollar bill. The element that makes the bond good makes the bill good… If the Government issues bonds, the brokers will sell them. The bonds will be negotiable; they will be considered as gilt edged paper. Why? Because the government is behind them, but who is behind the Government? The people. Therefore it is the people who constitute the basis of Government credit. Why then cannot the people have the benefit of their own gilt-edged credit by receiving non-interest bearing currency… instead of the bankers receiving the benefit of the people’s credit in interest-bearing bonds?”

Needed are the vision, energy and commitment to resist the current corrupt and undemocratic financial and monetary institutional rogues as hard, long and deeply as possible. We shouldn’t give up or give in to the financial Dark Side when the struggle has barely begun. Needed is a positive, potent and diverse economic and political movement to demand that the NEED Act be “thrown against the wall.” Any bill that is just, sensible, practical and all-inclusive like the NEED Act should certainly stick.

We the People should alone possess the authority to create and distribute our nation’s money as we collectively decide, not banking corporations.

Keep the fictional Darth Vaders on the movie screens and financial ones out of our monetary system.

NEOhio AFSC September 23, 2016 Podcast

podcasticon

Listen to Podcast here

We summarize last week’s activities; share next week’s upcoming events; and comment on efforts to reign in PayDay lending corporations, the recent and sudden investments of billionaires, and how the decision this week by the Federal Reserve not to raise interest rates effects all of us (Length 39:15).

MONETARY HISTORY CALENDAR June 26 – July 3

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JUNE 26

1009 BC – BIRTH OF KING SOLOMON, SON OF DAVID
The rich rules over The poor, and The borrower is The slave of The lender. Proverbs (of Solomon) 7:22

JUNE 27

1836 – STATEMENT BY JOHN C. CALHOUN, FORMER US VICE-PRESIDENT
“A power has risen up in the government greater than the people themselves, consisting of many and various powerful interests, combined in one mass, and held together by the cohesive power of the vast surplus in banks.”

JUNE 28

1836 – DEATH OF JAMES MADISON, 4TH PRESIDENT OF THE UNITED STATES
Madison signed into law a bank bill in 1816 creating the Second National Bank of the United States. Chartered for 20 years, the bank amassed economic power, which led to the successful efforts of President Andrew Jackson to abolish it in 1836.

JUNE 29

1795 – DEATH OF JOHN JAY, FIRST CHIEF JUSTICE OF THE US SUPREME COURT
“Those who own the country ought to govern it.”

1858 – DEATH OF EDWARD KELLOGG, BUSINESSMAN AND ECONOMIST. HIS IDEAS INFLUENCED THE POLICIES OF THE POPULIST AND GREENBACK PARTIES
“Legal value belongs to anything which represents actual value, or capital. Its existence depends upon actual value. The worth of things of legal value depends upon their capability to be exchanged for things of actual value. Since money is our monetary system is created as debt, the ‘legal value’ of money includes both the principal debt and interest — which exceeds the ‘actual value’ of a nation’s real wealth or claims on collateral at any point in time. The only means to close this gap and cover interest payments is to create additional collateral (goods and services) via economic growth. Of course, this additional debt-based money used to pay the previous interest has its own interest. Thus the downward debt cycle never ends until it collapses.

JUNE 30

1812 – FIRST US TREASURY NOTES AUTHORIZED BY THE UNITED STATES CONGRESS
Treasury notes are promise to pay notes to borrowers to raise revenue. The US needed funds to fund the War of 1812. Rather than print US money (such as “Continentals” – an interest- and debt-free money issued by the Continental Congress to pay for the Revolutionary War), the US government followed a different course – to issue notes to borrowers with promises to pay the principal with interest at a later date. The original interest rate was 5.4%. Wars cause indebtedness. Bankers tend to like wars since they tend to create financial dependency of nations to bankers. Thomas Edison would later say about Treasury bonds, “If our nation can issue a dollar bond, it can issue a dollar bill. The element that makes the bond good makes the bill good…”

1997 – PUBLICATION OF ARTICLE “BEYOND GREED AND SCARCITY” BY BERNARD LIETAER IN YES MAGAZINE
“While economic textbooks claim that people and corporations are competing for markets and resources, I claim that in reality they are competing for money – using markets and resources to do so. Greed and fear of scarcity are being continuously created and amplified as a direct result of the kind of money we are using. For example, we can produce more than enough food to feed everybody, and there is definitely enough work for everybody in the world, but there is clearly not enough money to pay for it all. In fact, the job of central banks is to create and maintain that currency scarcity.”

2005 – PUBLICATION OF “A MATTER OF INTEREST” BY WILLIAM HIXSON, CANADIAN ECONOMIST
“The very idea of a government that can create money for itself, allowing banks to create money that the government then borrows, and pays interest on, is so preposterous that it staggers the imagination. Either everyone in government in charge of the procedure is lacking in intelligence or they have been bought and paid for by those who profit from their skullduggery and their infidelity to the public interest.”

JUNE (not certain of exact date)

1992- UPDATED PUBLICATION OF MODERN MONEY MECHANICS BY THE FEDERAL RESERVE BANK OF CHICAGO
“The actual process of money creation takes place in commercial banks. Banks can build up deposits by increasing loans and investments…This unique attribute of the banking business was discovered several centuries ago…At one time, bankers were merely middlemen. They made a profit by accepting gold and coins for safekeeping and lending them to borrowers. But they soon found that the receipts (bank notes or IOUs) they issued were being used as if they were a means of payment. These receipts were acceptable as if they were money since whoever held them could go to the banker and exchange them for metallic money…Then bankers discovered…that they could make loans merely by giving borrowers their promises to pay (bank notes). In this way banks began to create money…More notes (IOUs) could be issued than the gold and coin on hand, because only a portion of the notes outstanding would be presented for payment at any one time…Demand deposits (checks) are the modern counterpart of bank notes. It was a small step from printing notes to making book entries to the credit of borrowers, which the borrowers in turn, could ‘spend’ by writing checks.”

JULY 1

1818 – SECOND NATIONAL BANK OF US TRIGGERS RECESSION/DEPRESSION
The Second National Bank of the United States (a private financial institution) on this day reversed its financial course from monetary expansion to contraction. They called in loans and cut future loans. They required payments from state banks in gold alone. This caused deflation, leading to a two-year recession/depression – called the “Panic of 1819.” This is what happens time and again when private financial corporations control a nation’s money system instead of We the People through their government.

1944 – BRETTON WOODS CONFERENCE BEGINS
The United Nations Monetary and Financial Conference, known as the Bretton Woods Conference was a meeting of 44 Allied nations in New Hampshire, where the International Monetary Fund (IMF) and World Bank were created. Participant nations agreed to fix their currencies to a set value of gold. Debtor nations were to be helped with payments. The actual program was the use of loans (to be paid back with interest) to create political and economic dependence to loaning countries and their bankers. Agreements to receive further loans were often conditioned on “Structural Adjustment Programs” which called for privatization/corporatization of public services, wage cuts and perversion of economies to service debt payments.

1967 – US POSTAL SAVING SYSTEM ENDS
Opposition from commercial banks prevented the postal savings system from fully developing. The United States Postal Savings System was a postal savings system operated by the United States Postal Service from January 1, 1911 until July 1, 1967

1983 – DEATH OF BUCKMINSTER FULLER, US ARCHITECT, SYSTEMS THEORIST, AUTHOR, DESIGNER, INVENTOR AND FUTURIST
“You never change things by fighting the existing reality. To change something, build a new model that makes the existing model obsolete.”
This is what proponents of a democratic monetary system are doing – calling for the creation of US money (rather than borrowing from banks) to rebuild our national infrastructure, democratizing the Federal Reserve system, eliminating “fractional reserve banking” (which allows banks to loan out more than their deposits) and other provisions.

JULY 2

1787 – LETTER TO JAMES MADISON FROM GOUVENEUR MORRIS, ONE OF THE PRIMARY ARCHITECTS OF THE US CONSTITUTION
In describing the motives of the owners of the new Bank of North America, Morris stated,
“The rich will strive to establish their dominion and enslave the rest. They always did. They always will…They will have the same effect here as elsewhere, if we do not, by [the power of] government, keep them in their proper spheres.”

1881 – PRESIDENT JAMES A. GARFIELD SHOT. HE DIED 10 WEEKS LATER
“Whosoever controls the volume of money in any country is absolute master of all industry and commerce, and when you realize that the entire system is very easily controlled, one way or another, by a few powerful men at the top, you will not have to be told how periods of inflation and depression originate.”

1890 – SHERMAN ANTITRUST ACT BECOMES LAW
The Sherman Act was an attempt to prevent unlawful restraint of trade and commerce and prevent monopolies – including banking monopolies. The Act was more aggressively enforced under President Teddy Roosevelt, including against the corporate practices of JP Morgan, the most powerful banker, if not corporate titan, of the day. In response to this increased enforcement of the Sherman Act and the Hepburn Act, Morgan created a financial panic by having his banks and those he controlled call in loans and refuse to grant new ones. The economic crash of 1907 followed. The “Panic of 1907” was a direct cause for the creation of the Federal Reserve System several years later.

1961 – DEATH OF EARNEST HEMMINGWAY, AUTHOR
“How did you go bankrupt?”
“Two ways. Gradually, then suddenly.”
From The Sun Also Rises

———————–

Why this calendar? Many people have questions about the root causes of our economic problems. Some questions involve money, banks and debt. How is money created? Why do banks control its quantity? How has the money system been used to liberate (not often) and oppress (most often) us? And how can the money system be “democratized” to rebuild our economy and society, create jobs and reduce debt? Our goal is to inform, intrigue and inspire through bite size weekly postings listing important events and quotes from prominent individuals (both past and present) on money, banking and how the money system can help people and the planet. We hope the sharing of bits of buried history will illuminate monetary and banking issues and empower you with others to create real economic and political justice. This calendar is a project of the Northeast Ohio American Friends Service Committee. Adele Looney, Phyllis Titus, Donna Schall, Leah Davis, Alice Francini, Deb Jose and Greg Coleridge helped in its development. Please forward this to others and encourage them to subscribe. To subscribe/unsubscribe or to comment on any entry, email monetarycalendar@yahoo.com

MONETARY HISTORY CALENDAR March 13 – 19

Greenbackk

MARCH 13

1943 – DEATH OF J.P MORGAN, JR, BANKER
JP (Jack) Morgan was the son and grandson of bankers who headed J.P. Morgan & Co., one of the most powerful banks in the nation. He struck a deal with the British and French governments to be the sole munitions and supplies purchaser during World War I, which earned the bank $30 million. The bank was so heavily tied to the British and French governments that it was charged Morgan politically pressured the US government to enter the war against Germany in order to rescue its loans.

MARCH 14

1782 – BIRTH OF THOMAS BENTON, US SENATOR, MISSOURI
“I object to the renewal of the charter of the Bank of the United States because I look upon the bank as an institution too great and powerful to be tolerated in a government of free and equal laws.  Its power is that of the purse, a power more potent than that of the sword, and this power it possesses to a degree and extent that will enable this bank to draw to it too much of the political power of this Union, and too much of the individual property of the citizens of these States.  The money power of the bank is both direct and indirect.”

1881 – INAUGURAL ADDRESS OF PRESIDENT JAMES GARFIELD
“The chief duty of the National Government in connection with the currency of the country is to coin money and declare its value.”

MARCH 15

1767 – BIRTH OF ANDREW JACKSON, SEVENTH PRESIDENT OF THE UNITED STATES
“I too have been a close observer of the doings of the Bank of the United States. I have had men watching you for a long time, and am convinced that you have used the funds of the bank to speculate in the breadstuffs of the country. When you won, you divided the profits amongst you, and when you lost, you charged it to the Bank. You tell me that if I take the deposits from the Bank and annul its charter. I shall ruin ten thousand families. That may be a true, gentleman, but that is your sin! Should I let you go on, you will ruin fifty thousand families, and that would be my sin! You are a den of vipers and thieves. I have
Determined to rout you out and, by the Eternal, I will rout you out.” 1834Jackson successfully opposed re-chartering the private “Second Bank of the United States.” He vetoed a bill in 1832 renewing the bank’s charter (license).

2003 – QUOTE BY CHRISTOPHER MARK, AUTHOR OF THE GRAND DECEPTION: THE THEFT OF AMERICA AND THE WORLD, PART III
“Welcome to the world of the International Banker, who like the famous film, The Wizard of Oz, stands behind the curtain of orchestrated national and international policymakers and so-called elected leaders.”

MARCH 16

1938 – HOUSE RESOLUTION (HR) 7230 INTRODUCED
John William Wright Patman, Democratic Congressman 1938-1978 and Chairman, Committee on Banking & Currency, introduces a bill to nationalize the Federal Reserve System.
“The Federal Reserve is a total moneymaking machine.  It can issue money or checks, and it never has a problem of making its checks good, because it can obtain the $5 or $10 bills necessary to cover its check simply by asking the Treasury Department’s Bureau of Engraving to print them.” 1964

2008 – BEAR STEARNS FINANCIAL CORPORATION ACQUIRED BY JP MORGAN FINANCIAL CORPORATION
Bear Stearns financial corporation is acquired for $2 a share by JPMorgan Chase Corporation in a fire sale avoiding bankruptcy. The deal is backed by the Federal Reserve, which provided up to $30 billion to cover possible bank losses. Bear Stearns was a global institution that invested heavily in subprime loans. Its failure was one piece of the financial crisis and recession.

MARCH 17

1947 – JOHN MCCLOY BECOMES PRESIDENT OF THE WORLD BANK
The World Bank would do more to expand US banking globally than any other treaty, agreement, or entity that came before it. McCloy was the World Bank’s second President. He had previously been Assistant Secretary of War during WWII.

2015 – ST. PATRICK’S DAY
“Nobody can borrow themselves out of debt no more than you can drink yourself sober.”
– Byron Dale, monetary reformer and rancher.

MARCH 18

1869 – PASSAGE OF US LAW THAT ALL US MONETARY NOTES WOULD BE EVENTUALLY CONVERTED TO SPECIE
Specie means money in the form of coins rather than paper notes. Bankers hated Lincoln’s Greenbacks, which were debt-free and inflation-free US money created to avert financial crisis during the Civil War. Following Lincoln’s death, bankers pressured Congress to eliminate Greenbacks, base money creation on precious metals (preferably gold) and, if additional funds were needed by the government to borrow it from banks at interest. Basing the money supply on gold or silver meant that the money supply could only increase when the supply of gold or silver increased – regardless of the growing population or an expanding economy. A pure metal-based money system has historically resulted in depressions – not enough money to meet the economic needs.

1993 – DEATH OF KENNETH BOULDING, ECONOMIST, PROFESSOR, PEACE ACTIVIST, QUAKER
“Anyone who believes exponential growth can go on forever in a finite world is either a madman or an economist. [Note: the same goes for debt.]

MARCH 19

1860 – BIRTH OF WILLIAM JENNINGS BRYAN, SENATOR, SECRETARY OF STATE, PRESIDENTIAL CANDIDATE (DEMOCRAT/POPULIST)
Bryan had originally supported the 1913 Federal Reserve Act as Secretary of State under the Wilson administration. His position was crucial in gaining the support of many Congressional Democrats and Progressives. He later regretted his decision. “In my long career, the only thing I genuinely regret is my part in getting the banking and currency legislation enacted into law.”

2011– LIBYAN REBELS FORM CENTRAL BANK
In what may have been a first in history, the Libyan revolutionary rebels created a central bank while still fighting an established state power. The rebels designated the Central Bank of Benghazi as the new monetary authority. It would indicate how influential central bankers were over the rebels. “I have never before heard of a central bank being created in just a matter of weeks out of a popular uprising,” said Robert Wenzel of the Economic Policy Journal.

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Why this calendar? Many people have questions about the root causes of our economic problems. Some questions involve money, banks and debt. How is money created? Why do banks control its quantity? How has the money system been used to liberate (not often) and oppress (most often) us? And how can the money system be “democratized” to rebuild our economy and society, create jobs and reduce debt? Our goal is to inform, intrigue and inspire through bite size weekly postings listing important events and quotes from prominent individuals (both past and present) on money, banking and how the money system can help people and the planet. We hope the sharing of bits of buried history will illuminate monetary and banking issues and empower you with others to create real economic and political justice. This calendar is a project of the Northeast Ohio American Friends Service Committee. Adele Looney, Phyllis Titus, Donna Schall, Leah Davis, Alice Francini, Deb Jose and Greg Coleridge helped in its development. Please forward this to others and encourage them to subscribe. To subscribe/unsubscribe or to comment on any entry, email monetarycalendar@yahoo.com